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HISTORY OF CHRIST CHURCH 
NEW BERN, N. C. 



1715-1940 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/crownoflifehistoOOgert 




E. K. Bishop 



Nof th Csrolin. St«f Library 



Crown 



of 



Mt 



HISTORY OF CHRIST CHURCH 

NEW BERN, N.C. 

1715-1940 

BY 

Gertrude S. Carraway 



Authorized by the vestry of Christ Church 

protestant episcopal church 

the rev. charles e. williams, rector 

E. K. bishop, Senior warden 



NEW BERN 
OWEN G. DUNN, PUBLISHER 



1940 



NORTH ■ LINA LIBRARY C0ft 

3K N. C. 



I 
i 

- 

- 



ANNIVERSARY TRIBUTES 
1940 

In commemoration of the 225th anniversary of 
the establishment of Christ Church Parish in 1715 
and the 200th anniversary of the Act of the General 
Assembly on August 21, 1740, authorizing erection 
of the first parish church here; and in honor of the 
Hon. Edward K. Bishop, for more than half a cen- 
tury a vestryman, first elected April 24, 1889, serv- 
ing as Secretary and Junior Warden at different 
times, and for the past eighteen years Senior 
Warden, first named to this high position of leader- 
ship and responsibility April 3, 1922 — able, loyal, 
and true, a worthy successor of worthy predecessors. 



K.v 



DEDICATION 

For all Thy saints, Lord, 
Who strove in Thee to live, 
Who followed Thee, obeyed, adored, 
Our grateful hymn receive. 

For Thy dear saints, Lord, 

Who strove in Thee to die, 

Who counted Thee their great reward, 

Accept our thankful cry. 

Thine earthly members fit 
To join Thy saints above, 
In one communion ever knit, 
One fellowship of love. 

Jesus, Thy Name we bless 
And humbly pray that we 
May follow them in holiness, 
Who lived and died for Thee. 

— Bishop Richaed Mant, 1837. 
Hymn 293. 



TWO CENTURIES OF SERVICE 

For two centuries of service, progress and inspiration, 
Christ Episcopal Church has held an important place, 
literally and figuratively, in the heart of New Bern, 
second oldest town of North Carolina. 

Its spire, pointing skyward, higher than anything else 
in the city, is rimmed with a large crown, symbolic of 
everlasting life, not only for the Church triumphant but 
also for those stalwart Christians who try to further the 
Kingdom of God on earth. 

The twenty-six rectors, the assistant ministers and 
many members have exercised a vital influence on the 
history of the region. To a great extent the history of 
the local Church is a history of the community. 

These patriots of the Cross have bequeathed a priceless 
heritage for the Church and Church members of today 
and tomorrow — a tower of strength during the past, a 
beacon of light in the present, and a guiding star for the 
future. 

"Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give 
thee the Crown of Life." — Revelation 2:10. 



RECTORS OF CHRIST CHURCH 

James Reed 1753-1777 

Leonidas Cutting 1785-1792 

Solomon Halling 1792-1795 

Thomas P. Irving 1796-1813 

George Strebeck 1813-1815 

Jehu Curtis Clay 1817-1818 

Richard S. Mason 1818-1828 

John R. Goodman 1828-1834 

John Burke 1835-1837 

Cameron F. McRae 1838-1842 

Fordyce M. Hubbard 1842-1847 

William N. Hawks 1847-1853 

Henry F. Greene 1854-1857 

Thomas G. Haughton 1857-1858 

Alfred A. Watson 1858-1862 

Edward M. Forbes 1866-1877 

Charles S. Hale 1877-1881 

Van Winder Shields 1881-1889 

T. M. N. George 1890-1905 

L. G. H. Williams 1905-1907 

John H. Brown 1908-1910 

B. F. Huske 1910-1917 

Daniel G. MacKinnon 1917-1925 

Guy H. Madara 1926-1930 

I. DEL. Brayshaw 1931-1934 

Charles E. Williams 1934- 



CONTENTS 



Anniversary Tributes 

Dedication 

Two Centuries of Service... 
Rectors of Christ Church.. 
Table of Contents 



Chapter 

I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 



Early Colonial Religion 

First Ministers in East Carolina 

Establishment of Church 

Craven County Settled 

Religious legislation..... 

Local Parish Designated 

Freedom of Worship Again Decreed. 

Union of Church and State 

New Church Acts 

First Local Church 

East Carolina Missionaries 

Gifts from King George 



Page 

3 

4 
5 
6 

7 



9 
12 
14 
19 
23 
25 
29 
32 
34 
36 
40 
44 



The Rev. James Reed, First Rector 47 

Royal Governor Arthur Dobbs 50 

Large Parish Territory 54 

Numerous Church Bills 58 

First Public School 61 

Other Services of "Parson" Reed._ 64 

Church and School 68 

Royal Governor William Tryon 72 

The Rev. James McCartney 76 

Tryon Asks More Aid 79 

Royal Governor Josiah Martin 82 

Tomlinson Assists Rector..._ 85 

The Revolutionary Period and 

Disestablishment of the Church 89 

Death of Mr. Reed... 95 

The Rev. Leonidas Cutting 98 

Steps Toward Organization 102 

The Rev. Solomon Halling 105 

First Bishop Elected for North Carolina 109 

The Rev. Thomas P. Irving _ 112 

The Rev. George Strebeck and The Rev. 

John Phillips, Assistant Rector 119 

The Rev. Jehu Curtis Clay and 

Organization of the Diocese.. 121 

The Rev. Richard Sharpe Mason 124 



8 CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

XXXV. Other Local Denominations 129 

XXXVI. Second Episcopal Church Building 136 

XXXVII. The Rev. John R. Goodman 141 

XXXVIII. The Rev. John Burke._„ 144 

XXXIX. The Rev. Cameron F. McRae._ 147 

XL. The Rev. Fordyce M. Hubbard 149 

XLI. The Rev. William N. Hawks 151 

XLII. The Rev. Henry F. Greene 158 

XLIII. The Rev. Thomas G. Haughton.„ 162 

XLIV. The Rev. A. A. Watson 166 

XLV. The Rev. Edward M. Forbes 172 

XLVI. Church Fire 177 

XLVII. The Rev. Charles S. Hale 183 

XLVIII. The Rev. Van Winder Shields. 185 

XLIX. The Rev. T. M. N. George 188 

L. The Rev. L. G. H. Williams 192 

LI. The Rev. John H. Brown 195 

LII. The Rev. B. F. Huske._ 197 

LIII. The Rev. Daniel G. MacKinnon 200 

LIV. The Rev. Guy H. Madara 204 

LV. The Rev. I. deL. Brayshaw 207 

LVI. The Rev. Charles E. Williams 210 

LVII. The Rt. Rev. Thomas C. Darst 216 

Christ Church Vestrymen 219 

Bibliography 223 

Index 231 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

E. K. Bishop Frontispiece 

First Local Church — 1750 32 

Communion Silver, Presented by King George II 48 

Second Local Episcopal Church — 1824 128 

Present Episcopal Church — 1875 __ 176 

Christ Church Altar..._ 192 

Showing Communion Silver and Memorial Cloth. 

The Rev. Charles E. Williams 208 

The Rt. Rev. Thomas C. Darst..._ 209 



EARLY COLONIAL RELIGION 

That the early colonists in Eastern North Carolina had 
faith and religion is evidenced by many historical facts, 
and, although for a history of Christ Church, New Bern, 
it is manifestly impossible to go fully into an account of 
Christianity through the entire section, nevertheless it is 
important to mention a few outstanding events that 
transpired before the settling of this city. 

During Colonial days the church was usually the chief 
center of a settlement. Upon it our American fore- 
fathers depended often for educational and social privi- 
leges as well as religious inspiration. Christ Church 
played as vital a role along all these lines as any other 
factor in this community, and as material a part as prac- 
tically any other church in any other region. 

On August 13, 1587, Manteo, Indian friendly to the 
white colonists in Governor John White's English settle- 
ment on Roanoke Island, was baptised, 1 this being believed 
to be the first Christian baptism by the English on terri- 
tory now comprising the United States. Some days later 
Virginia Dare, first white child of English parentage born 
in the New World, was also christened at old Fort 
Raleigh. 2 

In 1607, as English colonists started up the James River 
to found the first permanent English settlement at James- 
town, Va., they disembarked first at Cape Henry on April 
26. With religious ritual they planted there a crude 
wooden cross, symbolic of faith in God and confidence in 
the future. 3 Episcopal services are continued there an- 
nually in tribute to their piety and pioneer spirit. 

Religion was also made an integral part of the daily life 
of other later settlements in Virginia and Carolina. In- 
deed, many persons came to this continent mainly for 
freedom of worship. Others were stimulated to religious 
zeal in their new homes. In almost all colonies buildings 
were set apart for public worship, sometimes private 



10 CROWN OF LIFE 

homes were thus used. For wide stretches where houses 
were scattered, however, religion had to be an individual 
or family devotion. 

The first charter granted March 24, 1663, by King 
Charles II of England to the original eight Lords Proprie- 
tors of Carolina stated that these leaders were "excited 
with a laudable and pious zeal for the propagation of the 
Christian faith, and the enlargement of our empire and 
dominion" by settling "in the parts of America not yet 
cultivated or planted, and only inhabited by some bar- 
barous people who have no knowledge of Almighty God." 4 
As today, one of His Majesty's titles was "Defender of the 
Faith." 5 

Liberty of conscience and freedom of worship were al- 
lowed under both the first and second Carolina charters, 
although it was distinctly understood that the Church of 
England was to be the established church in the colony 
just as it was in the Mother Country. 6 

Under John Locke's "Fundamental Constitutions or the 
Grand Model of Government," accepted March 1, 1669, 7 
which had great ideals of liberty 8 though failing to func- 
tion suitably for scattered inhabitants in Carolina, 9 it 
was declared : 

"It shall belong to the Parliament to take care for the 
building of churches and the public maintenance of di- 
vines, to be employed in the exercise of religion, according 
to the Church of England ; which being the only true and 
orthodox, and the national religion of all the King's do- 
minions, is so also of Carolina, and therefore it alone shall 
be allowed to receive public maintenance by grant of 
Parliament." 10 

No missionary societies were in the world during the 
17th century, and there were no missionaries on this con- 
tinent except a few traveling Quaker preachers. But, at 
the close of that century the Bishop of London sent the 
Rev. Thomas Bray (1656-1730) to Maryland to settle 
some differences there and to study church conditions. 11 

Dr. Bray visited various American colonies, and became 
intensely interested in their religious conditions. Upon 



EARLY COLONIAL RELIGION 11 

his return to England, he reported in 1700 the immediate 
need of missionaries in the New World. 12 



i White, John, Account of Lost Colony. Published by Richard 
Hakluyt, Vol. Ill, p. 340. 

2 Ibid. 

3 "On the nine and twentieth day [of April] we returned to the 
mouth of the Bay of Chesiopic, set up a cross and called the place 
Cape Henry," wrote George Percy, son of Earl Percy, who was with 
the Virginia colonists in 1607. 

4 The Colonial Records of North Carolina (hereafter cited as Col. 
Rec), I, 21. 

5 Ibid., I, 20. 

Qlbid., I, pp. 32, 113-14. 

7 Ibid., I, 187-205; The State Records of North Carolina (hereafter 
cited as St. Rec), Vol. XXV, pp. 123-136. 

8 Col. Rec, I, 202-203. 

9 Ibid., I, pp. xvii-xviii. 
io Ibid., I, 202. 

ii Ibid., I, 520, 571. New Standard Encyclopedia, Vol. IV, p. 156. 
Drane, Dr. Robert B., Colonial Parishes and Church Schools, in 
Sketches of Church History in North Carolina, edited by the Rt. 
Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire and published by Wm. L. De Rosset, 
Jr., p. 167. 

12 Col. Rec, I, pp. 572-73. McConnell, Dr. S. D., History of the 
American Episcopal Church, pp. 96-98. Protestant Episcopal His- 
torical Society Collection, pp. 99-106. Hawks, Francis L., History of 
North Carolina, Vol. II, pp. 338-339. 



II 
FIRST MINISTERS IN EAST CAROLINA 

The first minister to preach in North Carolina is said 
to have been William Edmundson, a Quaker, native of 
Westmoreland, England, who came to Carolina during the 
Spring of 1672 and preached at the house of Henry Phil- 
lips, where the town of Hertford is now located. 1 

George Fox, also a Quaker, was the second missionary 
to visit North Carolina. He went to the western part of 
what is now the county of Chowan, as well as to the Per- 
quimans and Pasquotank sections. 2 

The Quakers were thus the first to send missionaries 
into Carolina, and they infused their principles through 
northeastern parts of the province. Presbyterians and 
members of other denominations also moved to the region 
from Virginia and other colonies. 3 

Quaker influence was felt from 1694 to 1696 when John 
Archdale was Governor of the Carolinas. He was a 
Quaker, convert of George Fox. But when Henderson 
Walker became Governor, 1699-1703, he did much to help 
establish the Church of England and further its cause in 
North Carolina. 4 

The first Church of England missionary for the Albe- 
marle section, sent in 1700 at Dr. Bray's insistence, was 
the Rev. Daniel Brett. This was an unfortunate selec- 
tion, as were some of the later missionary choices. He 
remained only a few months. 5 

As early as 1669 there had been instituted in England 
a society "for the promotion of Christian knowledge." 
For various reasons it failed to function well. A second 
organization, to supply clergymen for the American colo- 
nies, was started by Dr. Bray, desirous to improve re- 
ligious conditions in the colonies. 

On June 16, 1701, his society, as a voluntary organiza- 
tion among churchmen in England, was chartered by 
King William III of England as the "Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts." 6 



FIRST MINISTERS IN EAST CAROLINA 13 

This association did more towards the early Christian- 
izing of East Carolina than probably any other one factor. 
However, the group was greatly handicapped in its worthy 
efforts by the general indifference found on both sides of 
the ocean and the immense distances that had to be 
traveled. 

The first public library in Carolina was started at Bath, 
the oldest town, with books sent by Dr. Bray. 7 Books 
were later sent to many other towns of the province. And 
the Rt. Rev. Henry Compton, Lord Bishop of London 
from 1675 to 1714, obtained from the Crown a promise of 
a bounty of 20 pounds for every minister or scholar who 
would agree to come to America. 8 



i Cheshire, J. B., Jr., Fragments of Colonial Church History, 
pp. 3-4. 

2 Col. Rec, I, xviii, 226-27, 572. Journals of Edmundson and Fox. 

3 Vass, the Rev. L. C, History of the Presbyterian Church in New 
Bern, N. C, pp. 18-21. 

4 Battle, Kemp P., The Colonial Laymen of the Church of England 
in North Carolina, published in Cheshire's Sketches, pp. 95-96. 

5 Col. Rec, I, 572. 

6 Cheshire, The Church in the Province of North Carolina, op cit., 
pp. 51-52; New Standard Encyclopedia, IV, 156. McConnell, op cit., 
pp. 98-99. Hawks, op. cit., II, 340. 

7 Col. Rec, I, 572. 

8 Ibid., I, 600-1. Hawks, II, 339. 



Ill 
ESTABLISHMENT OF CHURCH 

In the Fall of 1701 Governor Henderson Walker had 
the "Assembly" pass an act making the Church of Eng- 
land the established church. 1 

Parishes were laid out in this province. Craven, named 
for William, Earl of Craven, one of the original Lords 
Proprietors, was a precinct in St. Thomas parish. Pro- 
vision was made for erection of churches and appointment 
of vestries. For payment of 30 pounds for each minister's 
salary, a poll tax was laid on every tithable person. 2 

Quakers, Presbyterians and other denomination mem- 
bers in the province objected strenuously to the bill, and 
appealed to England. They asserted that, though re- 
ligious toleration had been definitely promised, there 
could be no real religious freedom and liberty of con- 
science for all, if they were forced thus to help support 
the Church of England. 3 

The measure was later vetoed by the Lords Proprietors, 
not because of these objections filed by colonists but be- 
cause of the opinion that the bill was "inadequate," 30 
pounds not being considered enough for preachers. 4 

On December 15, 1701, however, the vestry of Chowan 
precinct appointed under the act made arrangements for 
a church reader and a house of worship. 5 This church, 
reported well under way October 13, 1702, near Edenton, 6 
was the first to be erected in North Carolina. 7 It is said 
to have been located on land later included in the Hayes 
Plantation. 8 

An entry dated June 30, 1702, in the Vestry Book of 
St. Paul's parish, Chowan precinct, refers to a March act 
of the Assembly empowering each vestry to provide a 
standard of weights and measures and transact other 
business. 9 That vestry also met on October 13 of that 
year and at other times. 10 

Governor Henderson wrote to the Bishop of London 
October 21, 1703, requesting that a "worthy good man" 



ESTABLISHMENT OF CHURCH 15 

be sent to Carolina to regain the flock and establish it in 
the Christian profession. 11 He severely criticized the be- 
havior of the Rev. Daniel Brett, said to be "the first 
minister sent to us." 12 

The first missionary sent to North Carolina by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 
was the Rev. John Blair. 13 He left England late in 1703. 14 
His mission in this New World was destined to encounter 
many difficulties and handicaps, as did other early Colonial 
missionaries. 

In a letter to officials of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel he reported three chief precincts in this 
province, with three small churches and three glebes. 15 
Craven was not counted as one of the main precincts. He 
said that a reader was engaged at a small salary in each 
of the three, for morning and evening prayers and two 
sermons every Sunday. 16 

Four "sorts of people" were described: Quakers, 
"powerful enemies to church government" ; those with no 
religion who would be Quakers if it did not compel them to 
live moral lives; a denomination something like Presby- 
terianism ; and those really zealous for the interest of the 
church. This fourth group was said to be fewest in num- 
ber but composed of the "better sort of people." 17 

Blair almost starved in the Carolina wildernesses. He 
worked hard and traveled far, but could accomplish little. 
While he was returning to England for aid after a few 
months, his vessel was captured and he was held a pris- 
oner of war in France for nine weeks. 18 

During late 1704 or early 1705 a Vestry Act was passed 
by the North Carolina Assembly, providing for twelve 
vestrymen in each precinct. These were given the power 
to build churches and raise money, displace and disap- 
prove ministers, for whom they were to pay 30 pounds 
per annum. 19 This measure was evidently later repealed. 

Members of the House of Lords of the British Parlia- 
ment notified Queen Anne March 13, 1705, of a petition 
received from Joseph Boone, merchant, and other Caro- 
lina residents objecting to two Assembly acts: appoint- 
ment of a commission of twenty laymen to remove rectors 



16 CROWN OF LIFE 

only by delivery of written notices and provision that no 
man might be chosen to the House of Commons of the 
Assembly if he had not received the Church of England 
sacrament within a year before his election unless he 
would swear he was of the Church of England profes- 
sion. 20 The Lords declared that such measures were not 
warranted by the charter granted to the Carolina Lords 
Proprietors.- 1 Accordingly, Queen Anne pronounced them 
null and void.- 2 

At a council meeting held in Chowan December 3, 1705, 
Bath County, reported to be growing, was divided into 
three precincts: 23 Pampticough, north of the Pamlico 
river beginning at Moline's Creek and extending westerly 
to the head of the river; Wickham, from Moline's Creek 
to Matchepungo Bluif; and Archdale, the south side of 
the river, including Neuse. Each precinct was allowed 
two Assembly members. Pampticough soon passed out 
of existence. In 1712 Wickham became Hyde, and Arch- 
dale became Beaufort. 

The second and third missionaries sent to North Caro- 
lina for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts were the Rev. James Adams and the Rev. 
William Gordon. They arrived in April, 1708. 24 Both 
were worthy Christian leaders. 

At that time there were four precincts in the Albemarle 
Sound section, 25 and both ministers went to that area: 
Gordon, to Chowan and Perquimans ; 26 Adams, to Pasquo- 
tank and Currituck. 27 

In 1709 Gordon wrote of his section: "The people, in- 
deed, are ignorant, there being few that can read, and 
fewer write, even of their Justices of Peace and vestry- 
men." 25 Bath was said to be the only town, with twelve 
houses but no church though land had been laid out for 
a glebe. 29 Gordon returned to England after a compara- 
tively short but satisfactory stay in America. 30 

Adams was called "exemplary" in a letter written 
August 25, 1710, by church wardens and vestrymen of 
"Caratuck" to the S. P. G. officials to thank them for 
sending the minister to that region. He was reported to 
have been there for two years and five months, and was 



ESTABLISHMENT OF CHURCH 17 

then planning to return to England. 31 A letter dated the 
next day was sent by the "Pascotank" vestry, asking for 
a continuance of Adams' work. 32 

Adams himself wrote, "I have suffered a world of 
misery and trouble, both in body and mind." 33 He pre- 
pared to leave for England but died in 1710 just before 
his scheduled departure. 34 

The Rev. John Urmstone was fourth on the list of 
S. P. G. missionaries to North Carolina. In 1711 he came 
to Chowan. Colonial Records contain numerous letters 
from him to his superiors, complaining bitterly of the 
land, vestries and lack of money. 35 The noted divine and 
historian, Dr. F. L. Hawks, wrote later that Urmstone, 
weak and vacillating, "did more to retard the spread of 
Christianity and the growth of the Church of England in 
Carolina than any and all other causes combined." 36 

Fifth came the Rev. Giles Rainsford, 37 whose health 
failed after a few months. He is said to have been 
alarmed by Indian hostilities and to have moved soon to 
Virginia. 38 



i Col. Rec, I, 543, 572. 

2 Ibid.. 598, 601. Cheshire, Sketches, p. 52. 

3 Col. Rec, I, 527, 709, 802. Cheshire, p. 54. 

4 Col. Rec, I, 601. Hawks, II, 343, 357. 

5 Col. Rec, I, 543-545. 
eiMd., I, 558-61. 

7 Cheshire, op. cit.. 119. 

8 Graham, John Washington, History of St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church, p. 4. 

9 Col. Rec, I, 558. 

io Col. Rec, I, 558, 560. 568, et als. 

iiZfeic?., pp. 572-73. 

lilbid., 572. 

13 Ibid., 597, 600. 

nibirl., 600. 

lSIMd., 601. 

iGIbid. 

i~ Ibid., 601-2. 

izibid., 600-3. Hawks, II, 344. 

19 Col. Rec, I, 680, 682, 689, 709. 

20 Ibid., pp. 634-40. 

21 Ibid., 636. 

22 ibid.. 643, 673. 

23 Ibid.. 629. 
24J6kZ., 681. 

25 Ibid. 

26 Ibid.. 684-85, 689. 

27 Ibid., 681. 



ftORTi LIBRARY CO*, 

N, C. 



18 CROWN OF LIFE 

2SiMd., 712. 

29 Ibid., 715. 

soma., 684-85, 701. 

31 I&uL, 728-29. 

S2 Ibid., 730. 

33 Ibid., 734. 

34/6irl., I, 884; II, 75. Hawks, II, 350-51. 

35 Col. Rec, I, 763-64, 774, 849, 850, etc. 

36 Hawks, II, 353. 

37 Col. Rec, I, 858-60. 

38 Hawks, II, 353. Col. Rec, II, 17, 128. 



IV 

CRAVEN COUNTY SETTLED 

The first white settlers in this section were from Vir- 
ginia, New Jersey and New England. Some were hun- 
ters. Others sought a living from the soil. Many desired 
religious freedom. There were Quakers, Calvinists, Puri- 
tans, French Huguenots and other "dissenters," who had 
come to America from religious persecutions abroad. 

Although there were a number of earlier smaller groups 
or individuals, the first organized settlement in Craven 
County dates back to 1707, when the Rev. Claude Phillippe 
de Richebourg brought Palatine Protestants to the Trent 
River. This is said to have been the first Presbyterian 
minister, as well as the first organized Presbyterian con- 
gregation, in North Carolina. 1 Some of the colonists were 
Lutherans, others Calvinists, French Huguenots, or Re- 
formed Church members. 

These exceptionally fine citizens moved to this region 
from Virginia, where in search of religious liberty they 
had gone in 1690, with the encouragement of King Wil- 
liam of England, first locating at Manakin Town above 
the James River falls. Not satisfied with the land in Vir- 
ginia, they had decided to move farther south. 

Pious and zealous, talented and hard-working, these 
settlers were unusually worthy. They held religious ser- 
vices regularly. In an effort to promote silk culture, they 
had eggs shipped here, but the eggs hatched on the vessel 
and the silk worms died for lack of food. After the 
Indian massacres in 1711, the colonists moved still farther 
south, settling on the Santee River in South Carolina. 2 

First organized colony direct from Europe to North 
Carolina, Swiss and German Palatines settled on the site 
of this town in 1710. They were stout Protestants. The 
day before the first group sailed from Gravesend on the 
Thames River in England in January, 1710, religious 
services were held and an appropriate farewell sermon 



20 CROWN OF LIFE 

was preached by the Rev. Mr. Cesar, a German Reformed 
minister of London. 3 

Baron Christopher deGraffenried, 49, Swiss nobleman, 
popular at European courts, who organized the colonists, 
was present for the farewell service. 4 He followed later 
in the year with his Swiss settlers, 3 changing the name of 
the Indian village, "Chattawka," on the Neuse and Trent 
Rivers in East Carolina, to honor his native Bern, Switzer- 
land. 6 

Henry Hoeger, a Reformed minister, accompanied the 
local settlers. He was 75 years old, sober and honest. 
Jacob Christofle Zollikofer, of St. Gall, Switzerland, was 
instructed to go around Europe to try to get contributions 
for the building of a church and for the sending over here 
of a young German preacher as an assistant to Hoeger. 
He was requested to have the young minister ordained 
in England by the Bishop of London and to send a liturgy 
of the Church of England translated in high Dutch. The 
outcome of these assignments is not definitely known. 7 

The colonists had been able to bring little furniture to 
their new home, but they did probably bring their Bibles, 
hymn books and religious volumes. Religious services 
must have been held often, probably at private homes. 

As early as 1703, the Rev. Josuah Kocherthal, a 
Lutheran clergyman at Landau in the German Palatinate, 
driven to despair over the religious persecutions and hor- 
rible sufferings which his followers had endured after 
invasions of French armies, had gone to England to in- 
vestigate the expediency of an emigration across the 
Atlantic. 

Upon his return home, he published a book on the pro- 
vince of Carolina, giving glowing descriptions of its 
climate and fertility. Thousands of downtrodden persons 
envisioned a land of plenty and promise, with liberty and 
peace of soul. 8 

Encouraged by the English government, which was as 
eager to get foreign Protestant colonists for the New 
World as it was to keep its own people at home, the 
greatest migrations since the Crusades took place. In a 
few months between 10,000 and 15,000 persons flocked to 



CRAVEN COUNTY SETTLED 21 

London, begging to be transported across the ocean. 
Among these were many of the future settlers of New 
Bern. 9 

For his colony, deGraffenried carefully chose young and 
able-bodied men, representing almost every trade and 
craft then prevalent. 10 No colony in America had such a 
highly selective personnel. 

DeGraffenried was authorized by the Bishop of London 
to perform marriage ceremonies and baptisms. 11 Though 
most of the settlers were of the Calvinistic and Lutheran 
faiths, they signified a desire to be affiliated with the 
Church of England. On April 20, 1711, deGraffenried 
wrote the Bishop of London: 

"Humbly request your lordship to accept of me and my 
people, and receive us into your Church under your Lord- 
ship's patronage, and we shall esteem ourselves happy 
sons of a better stock ; and I hope we shall always behave 
ourselves as becomes members of the Church of England, 
and dutiful children of so pious and indulgent a father as 
your Lordship is to all under your care ; in all obedience, 
craving your lordship's blessing to me and my country- 
men here." 12 

The Bishop of London wrote the next January 12 to 
Secretary Fulham of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel: "As to the letter of Baron deGraffenried, 
whereby you may perceive that they are all ready to con- 
form to the Church of England; if the Society will be 
pleased to allow a stipend for a chaplain to read Common 
Prayers in High Dutch, I will endeavor to provide so soon 
as I have their resolution, which I would willingly hear 
so soon as possible, that I may send him over with Mr. 
Rainsford." 13 

A colony of Welsh Quakers, including Thomas Lovick, 
John Lovick and other leaders who afterwards became 
prominent, settled in 1710 below New Bern on Clubfoot 
and Hancock Creeks on the south side of the Neuse 
River. 14 German immigrants arrived in 1732, but moved 
up Trent River and settled in what is now Jones County, 
then part of Craven. 15 



22 CROWN OF LIFE 

Thus there were English, French, Germans, Swiss, 
Welsh, Scotch-Irish and other nationalities in this area 
early in the 18th century. Many religious faiths were 
represented — Church of England, Calvinists, Lutherans, 
Reformed, Quakers, Presbyterians, and a few Catholics. 
Methodists and Baptists also came early to the section. 



i Vass, op. cit., pp. 49-53. Ashe, Samuel A., History of North 
Carolina, Vol. I, p. 161. 

2 Lawson, John, History of Carolina, pp. 28-30, 141, 187. Hawks, 
II, 85. 

3 DeGraffenried, Baron Christopher, The Landgrave's Own Story, 
published in deGraffenried, Thomas P., History of the deGraffenried 
Family, p. 77. Vass, 57. 

4 DeGraffenried, op. cit., pp. 76-77. 

5 Ibid., 78. 
a Ibid., 77. 

7 Dubbs, Prof. Joseph H., D. D., Historic Manual of the Reformed 
Church. Perry's Historic Collections. Vass, 60. 

s Todd, Vincent H., Ph.D., Christoph von Grafjenried's Account of 
the Founding of New Bern, pp. 13-14, 17, 22. 
9 DeGraffenried, pp. 75-76. 
io Ibid., 76. 
ii Todd, op. cit., 377. 

12 Col. Rec, I, 756. 

13 Ibid., 831. 

14 Vass, op. cit., 70. 
is Vass, 71. 



RELIGIOUS LEGISLATION 

Establishment of the Church of England in North Caro- 
lina was recognized by Act of the Assembly in 1711, with 
acceptance of the laws of England as "the laws of this 
government so far as they are compatible with our way 
of living." A fine of a hundred pounds was provided for 
vestrymen refusing to qualify under the English laws. 1 

The Rev. Mr. Urmstone wrote July 7 of that year that 
the Assembly Act provided for the worship of God and 
the establishment of the church. Vestries of twelve men 
in every precinct or parish were called to meet in six 
weeks to choose church wardens, to give them power to 
buy glebes, to build churches and to engage clergymen. 2 

But, it was difficult to get ministers. Miles Gale wrote 
in 1714 to the Secretary of the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel : 

"Your letters received for his Excellency, the present 
Governor Eden, and my Eldest Son, Christopher Gale . . . 
I have made all the Enquiry in my power after some to 
go as missionaries, they like the terms but dread y voyage 
and the heat of the climate. I heartily wish & hope Re- 
ligion may be taken care for in that Heathenish Country." 3 

An Act for Observing the Lord's Day was passed in 
1715 and remained in force until its repeal in April, 1741. 4 
Three holidays were again decreed: January 30, when 
King Charles I was "barberously murthered;" May 29, 
the Restoration anniversary; and September 22, the 
Indian massacre anniversary. 5 

This act forbade cursing, swearing and drunkenness on 
the Sabbath. Ministers were directed to read the law 
publicly twice a year, on the first Sundays in March and 
October. If no minister was in the section, the Clerk was 
ordered to read it at precinct court in April and October. 6 

Another 1715 law permitted Quakers to make a solemn 
affirmation rather than take an oath. 7 This was again 
decreed Oct. 16, 1749. 8 But, because of their failure to 



24 CROWN OF LIFE 

take oaths, despite the fact that liberty of conscience was 
promised, Quakers were long considered ineligible to hold 
office and were not allowed to serve on juries or give evi- 
dence in criminal cases. 

Also passed in 1715 was an act to the effect that no 
minister of the Church of England should be obliged to 
enlist in the militia. 9 Established Church clergymen were 
exempt from military duty during practically the entire 
Colonial period in North Carolina, but it was not until 
passage of a temporary six-months' act in 1760 and a 
more permanent act in 1764 that such provision was made 
for Presbyterian ministers, "regularly called to any con- 
gregation." 10 No mention was then made of other de- 
nominations. 

In 1770 it was recorded that for five years Quakers had 
been released from attendance on general or private mus- 
ters, provided they were regularly listed and would serve 
in the regular militia in case of insurrection or invasion. 
On February 23, 1771, Perquimans County Quakers wrote 
to thank the Assembly for the act passed at the pre- 
ceding session exempting them from militia duty and 
military training. 11 



i Col. Rec, I, pp. 789-90. 
2 Ibid., 769. 
3IMd.. Vol. II, 133. 

4 St. Rec, XXIII, pp. 3-6. 

5 Ibid., 3. 
Glbid., pp. 4-6. 
' Hid., 11. 

8 Ibid. Col. Rec, II, 884. 

9 St. Rec, XXIII, pp. 29-30. 
10/MtZ.. 597. 

ii Col. Rec, IX, pp. 176-77. 



VI 

LOCAL PARISH DESIGNATED 

Craven parish was one of nine parishes provided for 
in 1715; accordingly, the history of Christ Church may 
be said to have been started in that year. 

The bill was entitled "An Act for establishing the 
church and appointing select vestrys," this "Province of 
North Carolina being a member of the Kingdom of Great 
Britain and the Church of England being appointed by 
the charter from the Crown to be the only Established 
church to have Publick encouragement in it." 1 

Under the act the province was divided into nine 
parishes, as follows: Chowan precinct, two; Pasquotank 
precinct, two; Perquimans, Currituck and Hyde, each 
constituting one parish; the remaining part of the 
Pamplico River and its branches in Beaufort precinct, St. 
Thomas parish ; and "Nuse river & the Branches thereof, 
by the name of Craven parish, to which all the Southern 
settlements shall be accounted a part until further 
Divisions." 

The twelve men named as vestrymen for Craven parish 
were Col. Wm. Brice, Maj. Wm. Hancock, Mr. Jno. Nelson, 
Mr. Jno. Slocumb, Capt. Rich'd Graves, Mr. Dan'l Mc- 
Farlin, Mr. Jno. Smith, Mr. Jno. Mackey, Mr. Thos. 
Smith, Mr. Jos. Bell, Mr. Martin Frank and Mr. Jaco(b) 
Sheets. 

Vestrymen named for the various parishes under this 
act were directed to meet at their respective churches, 
chapels or courthouses within forty days after publication 
of the law. Should any vestryman fail to meet as sum- 
moned by the marshal or deputy, if not "a known & 
Publick Dissenter from the Church of England," he was 
to be fined three pounds. Should any marshal fail to call 
the vestrymen, he was to be subject to fine of twenty 
shillings. 

All the vestrymen were ordered to qualify before the 
following Easter Monday. Others to be appointed later 



26 CROWN OF LIFE 

were to qualify within a month. They were to take an 
oath and make the following declaration before a Justice 
of the Peace : 

"I, A. B., do declare that it is not lawfull upon any 
pretence whatever to take up Arms against the King & 
that I will not apugne the Liturgy of the Church of Eng- 
land as it is by Law established." 

After qualifying, the vestrymen were expected to 
choose two of their number to serve for one year as 
church wardens; then two other vestrymen were to be 
selected for this service the following year; and so on 
under this rotation in office until all vestrymen had served 
for a year as wardens. 

If a vestryman failed to serve as church warden, he was 
to forfeit thirty shillings. Should any vestryman be ab- 
sent from a regular meeting without "a lawful cause," 
he was to be taxed ten shillings. 

These vestries were empowered to purchase land for the 
erection of churches, raising money from a poll tax of 
not over five shillings a year. They were also to name 
ministers at not less than fifty pounds per year. 

The ministers were given the right to marry couples, 
but could not receive more than five shillings for each 
ceremony. Magistrates were allowed to marry persons 
"in such parishes where no minister shall be resident." 
A man and woman desiring to be married could take three 
or four neighbors or witnesses to the Governor or a Coun- 
cil member and obtain a marriage certificate. Previously, 
for lack of clergymen, marriage had been only a civil con- 
tract in the province. 

This extensive Vestry Act, signed by Gov. Charles 
Eden, N. Chevin, C. Gale, Fran. Foster, T. Knight and 
Speaker Edw. Moseley, remained in force until April, 
1741, when it was superseded by another bill establishing 
the church and a special marriage act. It was substan- 
tially re-enacted in October, 1749. 2 

In 1720 it was reported that the persons appointed in 
1715 to serve as vestrymen for the southwest parish of 
Chowan and Craven precinct had not qualified, so it was 
enacted by "His Excellency the Palatine and the rest of 



LOCAL PARISH DESIGNATED 27 

the true and absolute Lords Proprietors of Carolina," 
with the consent of the General Assembly, that the mar- 
shal or deputy summon the vestrymen to qualify within 
forty days, with power to fill vacancies. 3 

Three years later, on November 23, 1723, when New 
Bern was incorporated and laid out in a township, there 
was a clause in the charter providing a site for a church. 4 
Despite the Indian wars and other difficulties, the town 
had by then grown considerably. 

Beaufort was also incorporated as a town about the 
same time, and St. John's parish was established there, 
being divided from Craven into Carteret precinct. Ves- 
trymen named were Christopher Gale, Esq., Joseph Bell, 
Jno. Shaw, Jno. Nelson, Richard Whitehurst, Richard 
Williamson, Richard Rustell, Jno. Shackleford, Thomas 
Merriday, Enoch Ward, Joseph Fulford and Charles Cog- 
dail. 5 

No Episcopal minister was serving in any of the eleven 
parishes of North Carolina in 1727 or 1728, it was re- 
ported in the Journal of Proceedings for setting the 
boundaries between North Carolina and Virginia. 6 

On this Boundary Commission there was a Virginia 
chaplain, the Rev. Peter Fontaine, an Episcopal minister, 
appointed partly in order that people on the Carolina 
frontiers might get themselves and their children bap- 
tized. 7 

Colonel William Byrd, a boundary commissioner, wrote 
that when the chaplain "rubbed us up with a seasonable 
sermon, this was quite a new thing to our brethren of 
North Carolina, who live in a climate where no clergyman 
can breathe, any more than spiders in Ireland." 8 

Transfer of the province from the control of the Lords 
Proprietors to the Crown in 1729 ended Proprietary gov- 
ernment but brought little change in conditions. Each 
parish had the right to elect its vestrymen. The Craven 
vestry and church wardens could raise money by a poll 
tax not exceeding five shillings in currency for the pur- 
pose of paying preachers and aiding the poor. 9 



i Col. Rec, II, pp. 207-13. St. Rec, XXIII, pp. 6-10. 
2 St. Rec, XXIII, 6. 



28 CROWN OF LIFE 

3 Ibid., XXV, pp. 166-68. 
ilbid., 204-5. 

5 Ibid., 206-9. 

6 Col. Rec, II, pp. 750-57; 776-815. 

7 Vass, op. cit., 15. 

8 Byrd, William, Histories of Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and 
North Carolina, edited by Dr. William K. Boyd, p. 72. 

9 Col. Rec, V, 86. 



VII 

FREEDOM OF WORSHIP AGAIN DECREED 

Instructions drafted December 14, 1730, by King George 
II for Capt. George Burrington, named as Royal Governor 
of North Carolina, contained among the 117 different 
sections 1 the order that there was to be "liberty of con- 
science to all persons (except papists)." 2 These directions 
were repeated later for Royal Governor Gabriel Johnston, 3 
who did much to promote the power and influence of the 
church in the province. 

Burrington was told to "take especial care that God 
Almighty be devoutly and duly served throughout your 
Government, the Book of Common Prayer as by law es- 
tablished read each Sunday and Holiday and the blessed 
sacrament administered according to the rites of the 
Church of England." 4 

More churches and rectories should be built in North 
Carolina, 5 the King admonished, calling attention to the 
rule that "ministers must have certificates from the Right 
Reverend Father in God the Lord Bishop of London of his 
being conformable to the doctrine and discipline of the 
Church of England." 6 All schoolmasters also were to be 
licensed by the Bishop of London. 7 

Governor Burrington wrote July 2, 1731, to one of the 
Principal Secretaries of State: "This Country has no 
Orthodox Minister legally settled, those that formerly 
have been here generally proved so very bad that they 
gave people offence by their vicious Lives." 8 

The next March he wrote the Bishop of London: "I 
was not able to Prevail with the Last assembly to make 
necessary provision to subsist a convenient number of 
clergymen but have a very good expectation the ensuing 
one will come into the measures I proposed. Dr. Marsden 
continues in the South Part of this Province. He some- 
times Preaches, Baptizeth children and marrieth them 
when desired. 



30 CROWN OF LIFE ■ 

"The Rev. Mr. Bevil Granville, nephew to the Lord 
Lansdown, is also here. He was going to Maryland but 
we have hopes he will continue with us if your Lordship 
will procure the usual allowance from the Society. These 
are all the ministers of the Church of England now in 
this government : there is one Presbyterian minister who 
has a Mixed audience ; and there are four meeting houses 
of Quakers. 

"Mr. John Boyd (the gentleman who delivers this 
letter) was bred at the University of Glasgow ; has prac- 
tised Physic in the Colony of Virginia seven years, is now 
desirous to take orders, several Gentlemen of my acquain- 
tance in this Country give him the Charack of a worthy, 
conscientious man, well qualified for the ministry, they 
are desirous of having him for their Pastor, and earnestly 
requested me to recommend Mr. Boyd to my Lord Bishop 
for orders, a certificate, and an allowance from the 
Society, the Better to support him, if your Lordship thinks 
him deserving; as I believe Mr. Boyd's designs are purely 
to do good in takeing the ministry upon him and not out 
of any view of gain, I humbly recommend him to your 
Lordship for Orders and a certificate." 9 

Boyd wrote that year to the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts as follows about 
North Carolina: 

"There is no minister residing of the Church of Eng- 
land in any part of that government, for want of which 
many of the people are drawn away by Presbyterian 
anabaptists or other Dissenting Teachers, many of their 
children unbaptised & the administration of the Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper wholly neglected." 10 

From Edenton Granville wrote May 6, 1732, that he 
had baptized 1,000 persons. 11 That month Governor Bur- 
rington also reported that "Richard Marsden officiates 
Gratis at a place called Onslow." 12 Also in the Cape Fear 
region a French clergyman, the Rev. John LaPierre, was 
said to be engaged. 13 And, Governor Burrington re- 
ported, "a clergyman beneficed in Virginia preaches once 
a month in a precinct named Bertie." 14 



FREEDOM OF WORSHIP AGAIN DECREED 31 

A later report of the Royal Governor in 1733 to the 
Lords of Trade and Plantations stated : "There is not one 
clergyman of the Church of England regularly setled in 
this Government. The former missionarys were so little 
approved of, that the Inhabitants seem very indifferent, 
whither any more come to them. 

"Some Presbyterians, or rather Independent Ministers 
from New England, have got congregations . . . The 
Quakers in this Government are considerable for their 
numbers and substance; the regularity of their lives, 
hospitality to strangers, and kind offices to new settlers 
induceing many to be of their persuasion." 15 

The Rev. George Whitefield, (1714-1770), the famous 
Methodist divine, "unequalled prince of pulpit orators," 
arrived in New Bern on Christmas eve in 1739. On 
Christmas day he preached in the courthouse. An ac- 
count of his visit related that "Most of his congregation 
was melted to tears. Here he was grieved to see the 
minister encouraging dancing, and to find a dancing- 
master in every little town. 'Such sinful entertainments,' 
he said, 'enervate the minds of the people, and insensibly 
lead them into effeminacy and ruin'." 16 Mr. Whitefield re- 
turned to New Bern again in November, 1764, 17 and later 
in 1765. 18 



i coi. : 


Rec, III, 


pp. 90-118, 


2 Ibid.. 


, 110. 




3 Ibid.. 


, 498. 




4 Ibid.. 


, 110. 




5 Ibid. 






6 Ibid. 






T Ibid.. 


, 111. 




8 Ibid.. 


, 152. 




vibid.. 


, 339-40. 




io Ibid., 


394. 




ii Ibid., 


341. 




12 Ibid., 


342. 




13 ibid. 






14 Ibid. 






15 Ibid., 


429-30. 




16 Vass, 


op. cit., 


79. 


it Col. : 


Rec, VI, 


1060. 


is Ibid., 


VII, 97. 





VIII 

UNION OF CHURCH AND STATE 

Although it is impossible to get a complete story of 
religious history here during the Colonial era, court 
records prove the close union of church and state. In 
numerous instances may be found indications of a kindly 
Christian spirit towards the weak and unprotected. 

An entry dated March 20, 1740, in the minute book of 
the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, reads : "Mr. 
Philip Trapnell appears and delivers up an infant boy 
named Joseph Waters to this court. Ordered that the 
constable next in that neighborhood take the said boy 
into his custody and bring him to the vestry next Easter 
morning." 1 

In the same month it was recorded : "An infant about 
nine years of age is brought into court. The court 
thought fit to bind her out to William Carlton till she come 
to the age of 16 years and the said Carlton gives securities 
for his good performance during the time she shall re- 
main with him as follows : that he is to do his endeavor to 
teach her or cause her to be taught to read the Bible." 

Care of orphans is also shown in a record of Septem- 
ber, 1742: "Ordered that every master or mistress of 
orphans within this County bring a certificate from a 
neighboring justice to satisfy the court of their welfare." 

Such quality of mercy is not always evident. On Sep- 
tember 19, 1740, there was made the entry : "Mary Magee 
appears in court. Ordered that she be stripped her 
clothes to her waste and receive 12 lashes on her bare back 
at the public whipping post." 

Measures taken against "dissenters" from the estab- 
lished church were based on the belief that those who re- 
fused to worship under the prescribed forms were wicked. 
A bill for liberty of conscience failed to pass in 1740. 2 

A local record of June 20, 1740, stated: "A motion 
and petition made by a sect of decenting people called 
Baptists that they may have the liberty to build a house 




First Local Church — 1750 



■ 



UNION OF CHURCH AND STATE 33 



of worship and being duly examined by the court ac- 
knowledged to all the articles of the Church of England 
except part of the 27 and 36 they desiring to preach 
among themselves. Referred." Two words have a line 
drawn through them, but they seem to be, "but rejected." 

Later that year on September 22 the record shows: 
"The following dissenting Protestants appeared, viz.: 
John Brooks, John James, Robert Spring, Nicholas Pure- 
foy, and Thos. Fulcher came into court and took the oath 
of allegiance and supremacy and subscribed the test the 
39 articles of Religion being distinctly read to them the 
following of which they dissented from to wit: the 26th 
and the latter part of the 27th." 

However, the Craven Court of Pleas and Quarter Ses- 
sions in December of the same year granted a "Petition of 
Palintines or High Germans praying that they may have 
Liberty to build a Chaple on Trent for a place of wor- 
ship." 3 

Progress along many lines was made in New Bern dur- 
ing the next decade. In 1749 James Davis came from 
Virginia, through subsidy of the General Assembly, 4 and 
set up here the first printing press in North Carolina, 
publishing the first newspaper, first pamphlet and first 
book of the province. 5 

The General Assembly met here in 1738 6 and later in 
twenty different years, and the Council even more fre- 
quently, until the town was chosen in 1765 as the logical 
place for the provincial capital. 7 The next year a bill was 
passed to erect Tryon's Palace here as the seat of govern- 
ment for the province. 8 

i Taken from minutes of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions 
in the vault of the Clerk of Craven County Superior Court, New 
Bern, this entry and others quoted in this chapter, unless otherwise 
credited, may be found also in an article, "The Early History of 
Craven County," by the late Congressman Samuel M. Brinson, in 
Volume X, The North Carolina Booklet, published by the North 
Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution. 

2 Col. Rec, IV, 514. 

3 Vass, op. cit., pp. 60-61. 

4 Col. Rec, IV, pp. 976-77, 984, 1023. 

o Weeks, Stephen B., The Press of North Carolina in the Eigh- 
teenth Century. 

6 Col. Rec, IV, 355. 

T Ibid., VII, 2. 

8 St. Rec, XXIII, 664-65. 



IX 

NEW CHURCH ACTS 

In 1741 another act was passed establishing the church 
in this province. 1 Sixteen parishes were named, each 
privileged to levy a poll tax for support. Among the 
parishes is named, for possibly the first public time, 
Christ-Church Parish in Craven County. 

Inhabitants of each parish were authorized to meet on 
the first Monday after the act and on Easter Mondays 
thereafter every two years at the church or courthouse 
to elect twelve freeholders as vestrymen for two-year 
terms. 

These vestrymen were ordered to qualify, after being 
summoned by constables, and take this oath: "I, A. B., 
do declare I will not oppose the Liturgy of the Church of 
England, as it is by law established." 

Two church wardens were to be selected by the vestry. 
If they refused to serve, they had to pay forty shillings 
proclamation money. But they were not required to serve 
more than one year without their consent. The wardens 
were allowed three per cent of the church taxes. 

The vestry could engage a minister, buy land for a 
church and raise money for the poor. If a rector was 
believed to be immoral, he could be deprived of his salary' 
but he was permitted to bring suit for it in court. 

This act was later repealed, and another was passed for 
the clergy in December, 1758. 2 

A special marriage act was also passed in 1741. 3 This 
limited the right to perform marriage ceremonies to min- 
isters of the Church of England. In the absence of the 
rector, the matrimonial ceremony might be performed by 
a magistrate. But whether or not the rector acted in this 
capacity, he was to receive the fee, "if he do not neglect 
or refuse to do the service." 4 

Presbyterians did not consider themselves bound by 
this act, so they joined couples in wedding ceremonies 
conducted by their ministers without license or publica- 



NEW CHURCH ACTS 35 

tion. It was not until 1766 that these marriages were 
legalized. Then it was made lawful for a Presbyterian 
preacher to marry a couple by license, but even then the 
Church of England minister was to get the fee unless he 
declined to officiate. 5 

Much opposition was occasioned by these acts, and in 
January, 1771, the law was changed so that Presbyterian 
clergymen could marry couples by publication of banns 
or license without the payment of the fees to the Church 
of England rectors. 6 But the Board of Trade had the 
King disallow this change. 7 

Hence, it was not until the Revolutionary War and the 
adoption of the State Constitution in December, 1776, 
that there was no Established Church in North Carolina 
and the ministers of other denominations were legally 
permitted to perform wedding ceremonies and receive 
fees for the rites. 



i St. Rec, XXIII, pp. 187-191. 

2 Ibid., XXV, 364. Col. Rec, V, 1036. 

3 St. Rec, XXIII, pp. 158-161. 

4 Ibid., 160. 

5 Ibid., 674. Col. Rec, VII, pp. 432-33. 

6 Col. Rec, VIII, 384, 479. St. Rec, XXIII, 831. 

7 Col. Rec, IX, 7. 






FIRST LOCAL CHURCH 

Places for religious services, probably at private homes, 
were undoubtedly designated by the earliest settlers in 
and around New Bern, since so many of them had moved 
to the section for religious reasons. As already men- 
tioned, a chapel had been authorized up Trent River. 
There may have been one or more in New Bern. 

Col. Thomas Pollock, a "stalwart churchman" 1 and a 
Proprietary Governor of North Carolina, who held mort- 
gages on New Bern property for money he had advanced 
to deGraffenried, 2 wrote his New Bern agent that he had 
given a lot here for a church. 3 Title was confirmed by 
the Act for the Better Settling the Town of New Bern, 
passed by the General Assembly in 1723. That act speci- 
fically mentioned "proper allotments for a Church, Court- 
house, and Market-place." 4 

When Royal government of Carolina was initiated in 
1729 there were two or three rude buildings used as 
churches, perhaps including one here, though there is no 
proof for this, and a few Quaker meeting houses in dif- 
ferent parts of the province. At that time there was no 
regular clergyman in the territory. 

About 1734 the Rev. John LaPierre held a few services 
in New Bern, and it may be that his work stirred senti- 
ment for a commodious church building here. The next 
year he moved here and resided here for probably twenty 
years. He preached at various places of the region. 5 

St. Thomas Church, still standing at Bath, oldest town 
in North Carolina, dates back to 1734, now the oldest 
church building in the State. This was antedated by a 
house of worship which disappeared years ago. The 
parish was organized there with a vestry in 1701. 7 

Started in 1736 was the present church of St. Paul's 
parish, Edenton, but it was not completed for many years. 
Service was held there in 1760, and the interior wood- 
work was finished in 1774. 8 The parish of Chowan there 



FIRST LOCAL CHURCH 37 

had been organized at a vestry meeting held Dec. 15, 
1701, 9 and since then has been known as St. Paul's parish 
in that third oldest town of North Carolina. The graves 
of three governors, Henderson Walker, Charles Eden and 
Thomas Pollock, are in that historic churchyard. 

Inspired very likely by these examples of church build- 
ing in Bath and Edenton, the Craven parish vestrymen in 
1739 laid a tax on all tithables here for a new church. 
Commissioners were appointed for the purpose. 10 

These commissioners are reported in Colonial Records 
to have made 100,000 bricks for the local house of wor- 
ship. 11 The brick are believed to have been made from 
clay in a hill near this town, where John Lawson, first 
surveyor-general of the colony, had camped years pre- 
viously. Mrs. Richard S. Mason, wife of a later rector of 
the church, used to relate how her mother had boasted 
about helping with this task of brick manufacture. 12 The 
brick-making hole is said to have been long visible along 
New South Front Street towards the Pembroke road. 13 

Besides the cost of making these bricks, the vestry in- 
curred other expenses, so the legal tax of five shilling was 
found to be insufficient to carry on their work. 14 An act 
passed by the Assembly on August 21, 1740, enabled the 
commissioners to proceed with their work on the church 
by permitting them to levy a special tax for the purpose. 
The act also provided "for the better regulation of the 
said town." 15 

The extra tax sanctioned for New Bern permitted col- 
lection of one shilling, six pence, proclamation money, for 
two years. It was to be paid yearly, such commodities 
being acceptable, as "Pork, good and merchantable, dry 
salted, per Barrel, 30 shillings proclamation money ; Beef, 
dry salted, per Barrel, good and merchantable, 20 shil- 
lings ; drest Deer Skins, two shillings and Six Pence per 
Pound ; Tallow, four pence per pound ; Bees Wax, Ten 
Pence Half Penny per Pound; Rice, per Hundred, Ten 
Shillings." 

Collections were to be made by "John Bryan, Gentle- 
man, he giving Security of 400 pounds, Proclamation 
money, to the County Court of Craven." He was to be 



38 CROWN OF LIFE 

allowed four per cent of the amounts thus obtained. Each 
tithable resident not paying the tax was to forfeit four 
shillings and costs. 

George Roberts, William Wilson, George Bold, William 
Herritage and Adam Moore, "Gentlemen," were named as 
Commissioners to receive the levy from Bryan. 

In this act it was recorded that a lot had been "laid 
out" for the church in the 1723 charter, but this site was 
considered "insufficient and not so commodious" and "all 
the adjacent lots having been taken up," and the "vestry 
having taken up four lots, more convenient and com- 
modious, for erecting a church, and for a churchyard and 
other parish purposes," therefore, "as soon as the said 
church shall be fit to celebrate divine service in, the said 
four lots shall be saved to the parish." 10 

The commissioners were directed to sell at public sale, 
after four days' notice, the less desirable property that 
had been set aside for the church by Colonel Pollock in 
1723 and apply the money on their new church building 
at the larger site. 17 

These four lots approved for the edifice were on the 
north side of Pollock Street between Middle and Craven, 
including the present site of Christ Church. Accordingly, 
for two centuries the parish has used the same site, cen- 
trally situated on one of the most valuable corners in the 
business heart of the city. 

Another act passed April 4, 1741, pointed out that the 
tax had not been enough to finish the New Bern church. 
The vestry had been empowered to lay a tax of fifteen 
shillings per poll for paying a minister for one year but 
the next vestry had not thought it advisable to employ 
a minister, so this tax was ordered converted towards the 
completion of the church. 18 

This act stated that the 100,000 bricks made by the 
commissioners for the church were too many for the pur- 
pose, so the commission was authorized to sell all the brick 
not needed and apply the money on the church structure. 19 

Due to the deaths of Wilson, Moore and Roberts, their 
places on the commission were taken in April, 1745, by 
John Fonveille, Edward Bryan and Christopher Gregory 



FIRST LOCAL CHURCH 39 

Hobbs. Under the Assembly Act making these appoint- 
ments, the commissioners were authorized, if there was 
not enough money on hand to complete the church, to levy 
another tax "with as much Expedition as possibly may 
be." 20 

The act was amended in 1751. Bryan and Hobbs were 
then dead, and the appointment of commissioners was 
discontinued. The church wardens and vestrymen were 
given the power to call the commissioners to account for 
the money collected ; and, as some of the inhabitants of 
Craven and Johnston counties were said not to have paid 
the tax, the vestrymen and wardens were authorized to 
issue warrents on their possessions and chattels. 21 

It is believed that the church was finished about 1750, 22 
but for some time was without a regular rector. It stood 
at the corner of Pollock and Middle streets, and traces of 
its foundations and walls are still in the churchyard there. 
Some years afterwards it was torn down to make way for 
a larger structure. The two later churches have been 
located farther back on the property. 



i Cheshire, Sketches, 100. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Ibid., 172. Colonel Thomas Pollock's Letter Book. 

4 St. Rec, XXV, 204-5. 

5 Cheshire, op. cit., 69. 
e Ibid., 209. 

T Ibid., 162, 255. 

8 Graham, op. cit., 5-8. 

9 Col. Rec, I, 543-45. 
io St. Rec, XXIII, 141. 
ii Ibid. 

12 Whitford, Col. John D., Historical Notes, history of First Baptist 
Church and other parts of New Bern, in manuscript form, p. 291. 

13 Ibid. 

14 St. Rec, XXIII, 141. 

15 Ibid., 141-43. Col. Rec, IV, 549, 572. 

16 St. Rec, XXIII, 143. 

17 Ibid. 

18 Ibid., 181-82. 

19 Ibid. 

20 ibid., 231-32. 

21 Ibid., 365-66. 

22 Whitford, op. cit., 270. 



XI 

EAST CAROLINA MISSIONARIES 

Although impossible to mention all the missionaries 
that worked in Eastern North Carolina during the Colo- 
nial era, it is interesting to note that a number were di- 
rectly or indirectly connected with the history of New 
Bern or this immediate territory. 

The Rev. John Garzia acted for some time as a mis- 
sionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in the Chowan precinct, and "as occasion shall require to 
the North East side of River Nuse." 1 In his annual report 
dated April 16, 1742, from Bath Town, he told of bap- 
tizing 623 children, nine adults and three Negroes in that 
section, where he listed 103 communicants and 2,000 
"Heathen & Infidels." 2 

After Garzia died, the Rev. Clement Hall agreed to 
settle near Edenton in 1745. 3 A native of Perquimans 
precinct, he had gone to England for ordination in the 
ministry. 4 While the Edenton church was being built, he 
held services there in the courthouse, at an annual salary 
of forty-five pounds. 5 For a time perhaps the only clergy- 
man in the province, he also conducted services at four 
chapels in the territory that now comprises Gates and 
Chowan counties and he visited many other parts of the 
eastern portion of North Carolina. 6 

On December 27, 1749, he reported that he had 
traveled 200 miles through the northern part of his area 
that Fall, baptizing 265 white and twenty black children 
and four black adults, besides preaching fourteen ser- 
mons. 7 

Hall wrote May 19, 1752: "I have now thro' God's 
gracious assistance and blessing in about 7 or 8 years, 
tho' frequently visited with sickness, been enabled to per- 
form (for aught I know) as great ministerial duties as 
any minister in North America, viz., to journey about 
14,000 miles, preach about 675 sermons, baptize about 
5,783 white children and 243 black children, 57 white 



EAST CAROLINA MISSIONARIES 41 

adults and 112 black adults, in all 6,195 persons & some- 
times administered the holy sacrament of the Lord's 
supper to two or three hundred communicants in one 
journey besides churching of women, visiting the sick, 
etc." 8 

In addition to being one of the most capable and devout 
ministers in early Carolina, Hall was the first native 
North Carolina author. The main writers in this province 
that preceded him were not natives, as John Lawson of 
Scotland, John Brickell and the Rev. John Thompson of 
Ireland. 

The first book known to have been compiled by a native 
North Carolinian was published for Hall in 1753 by James 
Davis at New Bern: "A Collection of many Christian 
Experiences, Sentences and several Places of Scripture 
Improved; Also some short and plain Directors and 
Prayers for sick Persons ; with serious Advice to Persons 
who have been Sick, to be by them perused and put in 
Practice as soon as they are recovered; and a Thanks- 
giving for Recovery. To which is added, Morning and 
Evening Prayers for Families and Children, Directors for 
the Lord's Day, and some Cautions against Indecencies in 
time of Divine Service, &c. Collected and Composed for 
the Spiritual Good of his Parishioners, and others. By 
Clement Hall, Missionary to the Honourable Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and Rec- 
tor of St. Paul's Parish in North Carolina. Newbern: 
Printed by James Davis MDCCLIII." 9 

In 1755 Hall lost his house, books and personal property 
by fire. He died in 1759. 10 Succeeding him was "Parson" 
Daniel Earl, youngest son of an Irish nobleman and a 
former officer in the British army, who had come to the 
Albemarle section in 1757 to act as curate for the Rev. 
Mr. Hall. Besides his religious and political activities, 
he taught his people how to cultivate and weave flax and 
he established at his home, "Bandon," named for his 
native town, the first classical school for boys in North 
Carolina. 11 

About the time that Hall went to Edenton, James Moir 
was at Brunswick. 12 In 1748 Christopher Bevis asked the 



42 CROWN OF LIFE . 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to appoint him 
as Moir's successor in the Cape Fear territory. 13 Moir 
had moved to Edgecombe parish. 14 

The method of electing vestrymen being regarded as 
"inconvenient and detrimental," it was decreed in 1751 
that vestrymen should be elected by ballot in the same 
manner as Assemblymen. Only citizens qualified as 
Assemblymen were considered eligible for vestries. 15 

A bill to establish the church and erect schools offered 
in 1752 failed. 16 Two years later, however, North Caro- 
lina was divided into twenty-four parishes. Among these 
parishes were Christ Church parish, Craven County; St. 
Thomas in Beaufort County; St. Matthew's, Orange 
County; St. George, Hyde County; St. John's, Onslow; 
St. James, New Hanover; St. Patrick's, Johnston; St. 
John's, Carteret ; and St. Philip, Brunswick. 17 

The first minister for St. Philip's church at Brunswick 
had been the Rev. Mr. LaPierre, a French Huguenot, 18 
ordained in 1707, 1!) who had come to America the next 
year and to this province from Charleston in 1729. 20 The 
first wooden chapel, 24 by 16 feet, was erected there the 
next year. The next church there was started in 1751 
and was near enough completion for dedication in 1768. 
It is now in ruins. Colonial Dames of America make 
annual pilgrimages there. 21 

Obliged to sell his belongings, Mr. LaPierre is said to 
have moved from Brunswick to New Bern in 1735 and to 
have remained here until his death here in 1755. 22 
Although he is not listed as a regular rector of Christ 
Church, it is probable that he held services here and 
assisted with church and religious affairs in general. The 
General Assembly, in session here in 1749, voted him four 
pounds for preaching "several sermons" before that 
body. 23 



i Col. Rec, IV, 560. 

2 Ibid., 604-5. 

3 Ibid., 752-53. 

4 Cheshire, Sketches, 70. Graham, op. cit., 8. 

5 Col. Rec, IV, 753. 

6 Ibid., 924. 
T Ibid., 925. 
8 Ibid., 1315. 



EAST CAROLINA MISSIONARIES 43 

9 Copied from old copy of the volume. 
10 Cheshire, 71. 
il Ibid., 74-75, 168-69. Graham, 9-10. 

12 Col. Rec, IV, 606. 

13 Ibid., 876-77. 

14 Ibid., 872. 

15 St. Rec, XXIII, 369-70. 

16 Col. Rec, IV, 1337. 

17 St. Rec, XXV, 298. 
is Col. Rec, III, 342. 

19 Ibid., 529. 

20 Ibid., 391. 

21 Ibid., IV, 754-56, 1299; VII, 789. St. Rec, XXIII, 368. 

22 Cheshire, op. cit., 69. 

23 Col. Rec, IV, 1024. 



XSI 

GIFTS FROM KING GEORGE 

After the church in New Bern had been completed 
about the year 1750, Christ Church vestrymen tried to 
get a rector. Their efforts along this line failed at first, as 
there were few ministers in the New World. So, in 1752, 
they wrote to England, probably to the Bishop of London, 
asking aid in their endeavor to obtain a regular rector. 1 

Even before the arrival of the rector that this appeal 
drew here, it was perhaps in response to this letter, with 
its news of the new local church, that King George II had 
a special silver communion service made for the parish in 
1752 and sent it to New Bern as a royal gift, presented 
through John Council Bryan, then a church warden. 

This service, still in use here and from time to time put 
on public display, bears the Royal Arms of Great Britain 
and four Hall Marks, in a shield : the initials, M. F., for 
the manufacturer, Mordecai Fox of England ; the letter 
"R" denoting "Rex" or King by whom the plate was 
evidently ordered ; a Lion, "passant gardant." guaran- 
teeing that the silver was of the standard required by 
law; and a leopard's head crowned, showing that the 
plate was hall marked at the London government office. 

A similar communion set, also made by Fox, was pre- 
sented to the Old South Church, Boston, in 1742, with 
books, vestments and linen for the church altar. An alms 
basin, made also by the same manufacturer in 1760, is 
owned by Trinity Church, New York. 

Royal Governor Josiah Martin is reported to have tried 
to take the local silver with him when he fled from New 
Bern in May, 1775, but was prevented from doing so. 
During the War Between the States the Rev. A. A. Wat- 
son, local rector, took the service to Wilmington for safe 
keeping. Afterwards it was moved to Fayetteville and 
placed in the care of Dr. Joseph Huske, grandfather of a 
later local rector. It is said to have been overlooked there 



GIFTS FROM KING GEORGE 45 

by the Federal troops, because it was hidden among a 
great deal of worthless rubbish in a closet. 

As was the custom in such presentations, according to 
the late Graham Daves, secretary of this parish, who 
investigated the Royal gifts during a visit to London in 
1896, the ancient Bible and Book of Common Prayer still 
in the possession of the local church were presented to the 
parish by King George II at the same time as the silver. 2 

The Bible is 20 Y> inches long, 13 14 inches wide and 
41/4 inches thick. The initials, "G. R. E.," are found three 
times on the back, under the crown, standing for "George, 
Rex, England." On the front is the Royal coat of arms, 
with the mottoes, "Dieu Et Mon Droit," (God and my 
right) and "Honi Soit Qui Mai Pense," (Evil be to him 
who evil thinks.) The volume is elaborately illustrated. 

On the first page is the following in large print: "The 
Holy Bible Containing the Old Testament and the New 
Newly Tranflated Out of the Original Tongues and with 
the former Translations Diligently Compared and Revifed 
By His Majefty's Special Command. Appointed to be 
read in Churches." 

Under an ornamental engraving is the information that 
the book was printed at Oxford: "Printed by John 
Baskett, Printer to the King's Moft Excellent Majefty, 
for Great Britain; and to the University. MDCCXVII." 
(1717.) 

As a heading for the scriptures is the following dedi- 
cation : "To the Moft High and Mighty Prince James, By 
the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and 
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. The Transflations 
of the Bible, with Grace, Mercy and Peace through Jefus 
Chrift Our Lord." 

The large Prayer Book also contains on its covers, in 
gilt, the coat of arms of Great Britain. Upon the back, 
surmounted by a crown, are the monogram letters, 
"G. R. E." It was published at Cambridge in 1752 by 
Joseph Bentham, "Printer to the University." 

Its first page has this statement: "The Book of Com- 
mon Prayer and Adminiftration of the Sacraments and 
other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church According to 



46 CROWN OF LIFE 

the Ufe of The Church of England Together with the 
Psalter or Psalms of David Pointed as they are to be 
sung or said in Churches ; and the Form or Manner of 
Making, Ordaining and Confecrating of Bishops, Priests, 
and Deacons." 

This Prayer Book was presented to Dr. Richard S. 
Mason, later rector, by the vestry on his leaving this 
parish in 1828. It was returned a few months after his 
death by his wife, at his request. A note in Dr. Mason's 
handwriting pasted in the volume says it was to be re- 
turned to Christ Church ; and a letter on black-rimmed 
stationery, dated June 20, 1874, and signed by Mary 
Mason, also gives this information. 

Both the Bible and Prayer Book were lent to the Hall 
of History at Raleigh for some years, but are now here at 
the church. 



i St. Rec, XXIII, 420. 

2 Much of the information in this chapter as to the history of the 
communion service and the Hall Marks are from an unpublished, 
typescript article by Graham Daves, pasted in one of the old church 
record books. 



XIII 

THE REV. JAMES REED 

FIRST RECTOR OF CHRIST CHURCH 

Two ministers, both exceptionally worthy men, came 
from England following the appeal of Christ Church 
vestrymen in 1752. The first was the Rev. James Reed, 
who became the first regular rector of the parish. Ar- 
riving shortly afterwards was the Rev. Alexander 
Stewart, who went to Bath. 

Evidently Reed had felt certain that he would be en- 
gaged here, for he is reported to have brought his family 
with him. 1 They arrived late in the year 1753. After a 
year's trial as clergyman, Reed was formally installed by 
Act of the Assembly as the rector of Christ Church 
parish. 2 

Passed at the request of the Christ Church wardens and 
vestrymen, the act read in part that the "Rev. James 
Reed at great Charges and Expence, transported himself 
from England hither and hath performed Divine Services 
at the said church and at the several chappels within the 
said parish One year and upwards, to the approbation of 
the parish." 

The minister was promised an annual salary of 133 
pounds, six shillings and eight pence, proclamation money, 
so must have been considered an exceptionally fine pastor. 
He was assured a good glebe house, with kitchen, the 
"lot to be well and sufficiently paled in." 3 

For his part of the contract, which was confirmed by 
Governor Arthur Dobbs, Reed agreed to hold services at 
Christ Church every Sunday except when he was on 
leave at the chapels in this vicinity. He was to visit each 
chapel three times a year. 4 

This Assembly Act, passed in January, 1755, 5 confirmed 
the agreement that the church wardens and vestry had 
previously made with Reed. It was introduced by John 
Fonveille, Craven County's Representative, and Solomon 



48 CROWN OF LIFE 

Rew, c Assemblyman from the Borough Town of New 
Bern, who died the next Fall. 7 

On December 18, 1754, the House of Commons, in 
session at New Bern, passed a resolution naming Samuel 
Swann and John Starkey, both of Onslow County, to wait 
on Reed and thank him for the sermon he had delivered 
before the House members on Sunday, December 15. 8 

That he made a favorable impression is evidenced by 
the fact that he served as Chaplain of the Assembly in 
January, 1755, being paid ten pounds for this service. 9 
He was specifically exempted from clergy acts. 10 

Again the following October, at New Bern, Starkey and 
James Carter of Rowan County were requested to return 
the thanks of the House to Reed for the sermon he had 
preached to the Assemblymen on the preceding Wednes- 
day. 11 

Many times he served as the Assembly Chaplain, so 
must have been a devout minister and eloquent speaker. 
In March, 1757, 12 he was paid ten pounds for his services 
during the Assembly session, according to Colonial 
Records. He served also as House Chaplain in May, 
1757 ; 13 and again in April, 1760, when the House met 
daily at nine o'clock in the morning for religious 
services. 14 

Eight chapels at remote points, besides Christ Church 
in New Bern and St. John's parish church in Carteret 
County, were served by Mr. Reed. 1 '" 3 In 1758 he was en- 
rolled as a regular missionary of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, but due to 
miscarriage of mail he did not learn definitely of his 
appointment until 1760. 16 

On March 5, 1760, he wrote the S. P. G. Secretary to 
thank him for the appointment and the organization's 
instructions, as well as for a "parcel of books" and "pious 
tracts." He promised to distribute the pamphlets and 
said that one had already brought good results in en- 
couraging church members to attend Holy Communion 
services here more regularly. 17 

Terming the S. P. G. aid "a great encouragement to 
perseverance in the faithful discharge of my ministerial 



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THE REV. JAMES REED 49 

duty," the rector pledged himself to endeavor to answer 
their expectations "to the utmost of my abilities that the 
society may never have occasion to repent of their ap- 
pointment, nor our worthy Governor of his recommen- 
dation." 18 

Other ministers also preached at the new church in 
New Bern. On December 27, 1755, the Rev. Michael 
Smith, 19 of Johnston County, later of St. James, New 
Hanover County, delivered a sermon there for the Ancient 
and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons. 
At the request of members, his sermon was printed here 
in 1756 by James Davis. In October, 1756, a sermon Mr. 
Smith preached before the House during a General As- 
sembly session here was ordered printed. 20 



i Cheshire, Sketches, 74. 

2 St. Rec, XXIII, 420-21. 

sibid. 

Ubid. 

5 Col. Rec, V, 310. 

GIbid., 270. 

'Ibid., 522. 

» Ibid., 241. 

9 Ibid., 307. 
10 Ibid., 1080. 
ii Ibid., 550. 
12 Ibid., 688. 
IB ibid., 845. 

14 Ibid., VI, 366. 

15 Ibid., 230. 

16 Ibid.. 231. 
nibid. 

IS Ibid. 

wibid., V, 961-62. 

20 ibid., 665, 696. 



XIV 

ROYAL GOVERNOR ARTHUR DOBBS 

When Arthur Dobbs, of Castle Dobbs, Ireland, author 
of scientific and other books, High Sheriff of County 
Antrim, Surveyor General of Ireland, and Member of the 
Irish Parliament for Carrickfergus, 1 was appointed Royal 
Governor of North Carolina, he was instructed June 17, 
1754, by the Lords of Trade to the King to "take especial 
care God Almighty be . . . served . . . the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer as by law established read each Sunday and 
holiday," and Communion administered according to the 
Church of England. 2 

Churches were to be kept open, and more churches and 
rectories should be built, the new Governor was told. 
Ministers were to obtain certificates from the Bishop of 
London ; and every orthodox rector was to be a member of 
the vestry in his parish. 3 No schoolmaster was to serve 
without a license from the Governor and the Bishop of 
London. 4 

Dobbs endeavored to carry out these directions, but 
that he was confronted by a difficult task is borne out by 
what the Rev. Mr. Fontaine wrote about North Carolina 
in 1754: "They have no established laws, and very little 
of the gospel, in that whole colony." 5 

In January, 1755, after two months in his gubernatorial 
capacity, Dobbs wrote: "What I have chiefly observed 
since I came here as to the wants & Defects of this 
Province is first the want of a sufficient Number of 
Clergymen to instil good principals and Morality into the 
Inhabitants, & proper Schoolmasters to instruct their 
Youth, the want of which occasion an Indolence & want of 
attention to their own good." 6 

The Assembly appropriated 7,200 pounds for the pur- 
chase of glebes and 2,000 pounds for the purchase of 
public buildings, subject to the King's approval; but, 



ROYAL GOVERNOR ARTHUR DOBBS 51 

though His Majesty later sanctioned the appropriations, 
the money was used instead for aiding the British during 
the French and Indian wars. Repeated requests were 
made for the return of these sums for their original 
purpose. 7 

A day of solemn fasting and war prayers was set aside 
by Governor Dobbs in April, 1757. 8 By another proclama- 
tion, June 7, 1758, was designated as a time for fasting, 
supplication and thanksgiving. 9 To celebrate victory, he 
issued another formal proclamation for a thanksgiving 
day during the Fall of 1759, he wrote William Pitt in Eng- 
land, and he even composed a special thanksgiving hymn 
to be sung through the province. 10 

During November, 1757, he again suggested amend- 
ments for the bill providing for an established clergy. 11 
Church laws had been evaded in some counties by citizens 
combining to elect vestrymen who they knew would not 
serve. To Dobbs it seemed better to put a general tax on 
all taxable persons in the entire province and pay the 
clergy directly out of that sum in the public treasury, 
using any surplus for the erection of church buildings. 12 

A year later, in November, 1758, his main recommenda- 
tion to the Assembly again was for a better law to main- 
tain the clergy. 13 He urged that ministers' salaries be 
fixed and vestries better regulated so that future vestry- 
men would not have the right to reduce the salaries and 
supplies of their rectors. It was also suggested that 
vestrymen be carefully chosen and then obliged to qualify 
and act. 

"I must also recommend to you the erecting proper 
schools in the Province for the education of youth, in the 
reformed Protestant Religion, and in moral religious 
principles," he wrote, "otherwise in the next age we shall 
have a succession of Infidels, Deists, Enthusiasts and 
Sectaries to the disgrace of our Holy Religion and 
destruction of Society." 14 

Accordingly, measures for better provision of the 
clergy and selection of vestries were passed in 1758. 



52 CROWN OF LIFE ■ 

Every minister in the province was to be allowed an an- 
nual salary of 100 pounds, proclamation money, also a 
"glebe with a mansion house, outhouses and other con- 
veniences," or, if no house, twenty more pounds. It was 
set forth that this should not conflict with Mr. Reed's 
contract. 15 

Although later repealed and included in a more compre- 
hensive law of 1762, the new provisions were the best 
for the clergy in provincial history up to that time, the 
General Assembly reported to the King: 

"And more we should have gladly done; but alas, Sir, 
the Country is so impoverished in its circumstances 
through granting repeated Aids to your Majesty for 
making the same defensible and in carrying on Expe- 
ditions . . . against the French and their Indian Allies, 
that we cannot give sufficient encouragement to the 
Clergy, nor Erect proper Schools for the Education of 
our Youth. Permit us, therefore, most earnestly to 
intreat your Majesty to order and direct that the pro- 
portion of the said sum which shall be allotted to this 
Country be laid out ... in purchasing a Glebe for each 
parish in this province . . . and erecting and establishing 
a free School in every County." 16 

In a letter from New Bern, Governor Dobbs reported 
to the Board of Trade May 18, 1759, that he had approved 
bills for a lottery to finish churches at Wilmington and 
Brunswick, as similar bills had been passed in a number 
of provinces and it had seemed impossible to get the 
vestries to levy taxes to complete the two churches. 17 A 
bill passed in December, 1760, applied proceeds from 
slaves and other effects taken from Spaniards at Cape 
Fear in 1748 towards finishing the two houses of wor- 
ship. 18 



i Vass, op. cit., 22. 

2 Col. Rec, V, 1136. 

3 Ibid. 

■i Ibid., 1137. 
^ Ibid., V, v. 
6 Ibid., 314. 

t Ibid., 527, 1095; VI, 988-89, 1036-37, 1154a-54b. St. Rec, XXIII, 
422-24. 

8 Col. Rec, V, 755. 



ROYAL GOVERNOR ARTHUR DOBBS 53 



9 Ibid., 932. 
10 ma., VI, 62-64, 65. 
ii Ibid., V, 870. 
12 ibid., 870, 1014; VI, 5, 223. 
i3iMd., V, 1014. 

14 Ibid. 

15 Ibid., 1036; VI, 5. St. Rec, XXV, 364. 

16 Col. Rec, V, 1095. 

n Ibid., VI, 32, 511. St. Rec, XXIII, 535-37. 
is St. Rec, XXIII, 535-37. 



XV 

LARGE PARISH TERRITORY 

An Assembly bill in January, 1760, proposing to divide 
Christ Church parish, was rejected by the Upper House, 1 
although "Parson" Reed reported to the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts that his terri- 
tory was at least a hundred miles long. 2 On June 26, 
1760, he wrote the S. P. G. Secretary that he could not 
ascertain the number of active communicants of the 
Church of England, because the county was so large he 
was unable to administer Communion at the several 
chapels more than once a year. 3 

"There are too many that can hardly be said to be 
members of any particular Christian society," he com- 
mented, "and a great number of dissenters of all 
denominations from New England, particularly Anabap- 
tists, Methodists, Quakers and Presbyterians." About 
nine or ten were said to be "Papists." The "Infidels & 
Heathen" were said to total about a thousand. 4 

No Indians were reported, but a great many of the 
Negroes were said to be heathen. "I baptize all those 
whose masters become sureties for them," he added. 5 

Erection of a chapel in Carteret County was mentioned, 
"built a neat wooden chapel upon Newport River, where 
a small, regular congregation constantly attend divine 
service, performed by a layman every Sunday." 6 

Two bishops for the continent, one for the Northern 
district and the other for the Southern district, or two 
clergymen with Episcopal powers, as well as more regular 
rectors, were requested of the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in a letter written January 22, 1760, 
by Governor Dobbs. The society was asked to increase its 
missionaries in this province, which was said to have 
80,000 white residents besides Negroes, 7 

"Nor have we but eight resident Clergymen," the 
governor observed. "Having only strollers who set up 



LARGE PARISH TERRITORY 55 

for teachers, without any regular instruction, and many 
of them immoral Livers." s 

That Mr. Reed had given satisfaction in his parish is 
proved by the following recommendation given him 
March 3, 1760, by the church vestry: 

"We, the subscribers, the church wardens and only 
vestrymen at present qualified of Christ Church parish, 
which is the whole extent of Craven County, in the pro- 
vince of North Carolina, do hereby certify that the Rev. 
James Reed hathe served the cure of the sd. parish for 
6 years & upwards, that during the sd. time he hath 
diligently attended one Parish church & 8 chapels situate 
at very great distances from the town of Newbern, the 
place of his residence & centre of the Parish. 

"That he hath given great satisfaction to his parish- 
ioners by a regular and exemplary life and a faithful 
discharge of his duty & that there is a perfect harmony 
and good agreement subsisting between the sd. Rev. Jas. 
Reed & his Parishioners in general, witness our hands 
this 3rd. day of March, 1760." 9 

This recommendation is signed by John Fonvielle, 
Will'm. Jonas, church wardens ; James Shine, Thos. 
Graves, Lem'l. Hatch, Jacob Blount, vestrymen. 

Reed had a comfortable rectory here, as indicated in a 
letter written to the S. P. G. Secretary by the Rev. John 
MacDowell on April 16, 1761, that New Bern had had an 
Assembly Act passed allowing 100 pounds sterling a year 
to Reed and that Reed had a parsonage house and all 
conveniences. 10 

But, according to his own word, the local rector did not 
get the salary promised locally. Other difficulties are 
set forth in a letter he wrote to the S. P. G. on December 
27, 1762, from New Bern : 

"The hardships we labor under in this Province are so 
great that were it not for the benevolences of the Society, 
we could not subsist with the least decency. Every 
clergyman that has attempted to settle in this Province 
for these 10 years past, upon the sole dependence of the 
legal stipend, have been obliged to leave it, and 'tis our 
misfortune at Present to have no legal Stipend at all; or 



56 CROWN OF LIFE 

rather there is no law at present by which any stipend can 
be recovered. 

"At an Assembly held at New Bern in Nov'r. last a 
bill for the encouragement of an Orthodox Clergy and a 
bill for the establishment of Vestries were presented to 
his Excellency the Governor for his assent, the latter of 
which was rejected on account of some exceptional 
Clauses, and as the 2 bills depended on each other in such 
a manner, that the one cannot operate without the other, 
we are therefore at present without any legal encourage- 
ment. 

"Very probably something may be done in our favor 
at the next Assembly, especially if it should please God to 
prolong the life of our praiseworthy Gov'r. But we can- 
not expect his abode with us much longer, for he is far 
advanced in years and has lately had a slight stroke of 
the Palsy; so that I every day expect to hear the dis- 
agreeable news of his death, in whom the clergy will lose 
a faithful friend, and the Christian Religion an able 
advocate." 11 

The following June 26 Reed wrote the Secretary that 
the clergy were still destitute of any legal provision or 
encouragement and had nothing to live on but the 
benevolences of the Society. Evidently the local parish 
paid him very little, and for long periods of time must 
have paid him nothing. 

"I have not received any stipend at all from my Parish 
for upwards of 14 months," he wrote, "nor have I the 
least expectation of receiving one shilling till some Vestry 
Law be enacted, for as long as there is no vestry Law no 
tax can be levied for the clergy's Stipend & tho' the 
Sheriffs have now a whole year's collection in their hands 
yet as there is no vestry to call them to account they do 
not choose to part with the money on any terms or 
security whatsoever, the misfortune is they too often 
stand in need of it themselves. For the generality of the 
Sheriffs are very extravagant, to say no more . . . 

"The Assembly is to meet I believe about Oct'r. next 
when our Governor will endeavor if possible to get a 
better vestry Law enacted than any of the former ones, 



LARGE PARISH TERRITORY 57 

that have been repealed. It would be much better for 
the Clergy, than it has been, if the Stipend were paid out 
of the public treasury as in So. Carolina . . . 

"The churchwardens used to send us to the Sheriffs, 
and the Sheriffs to send us back again to the church- 
wardens. It is not long ago since I had the misfortune to 
be sent backwards and forward & played off in this 
manner for 12 months successively." 12 



i Col. Rec, VI, 172. 

2 Ibid., 595. 

3 Ibid., 265. 

4 Ibid. 

5 Ibid. 

6 Ibid., 265-66. 
1 1bid., 222-23. 

8 Ibid., 223. 

9 Ibid., 230. 

io Ibid., VI, 554. 

ii Ibid., 745. 

12 Ibid., 990. 



XVI 

NUMEROUS CHURCH BILLS 

So many church bills were introduced in the General 
Assembly during the Colonial period, many of them being 
passed but later repealed or vetoed, that it is extremely 
difficult to keep up with their provisions from time to 
time. 

Alex Stewart, missionary at Bath, reported May 20, 
1760, that in the six years he had resided in the province 
four different acts had been passed by the Assembly for 
electing vestries and encouraging an orthodox clergy. The 
last one had met the fate of most of the others, he said, 
through repeal in England. 1 

Governor Dobbs, as Parson Reed said, worked dili- 
gently in behalf of the established church and its clergy- 
men ; but for various reasons, here and abroad, it seemed 
impossible to get definite action that would last 
permanently. 

The Assembly tried to re-enact the Vestry bill repealed 
by the King, taking the nomination of ministers from the 
Crown, the Governor reported January 22, 1760, but the 
assemblymen had been too busy with other matters, so 
established a Vestry law for one year to retain the tax 
for maintaining clergy pursuant to the last act, which 
settled 100 pounds per annum on clergy, with 20 pounds 
in lieu of glebe. At the next session, he remarked, it was 
hoped to establish a general fund to pay the rectors direct 
from the provincial treasury, as in South Carolina. 2 

Church wardens were instructed in 1760 to appear 
annually at the orphans' court to present the names of 
orphans without guardians or apprenticeships and to 
report abuses of guardians. Justices and wardens failing 
to do their duty along this line were liable to fines of ten 
pounds. 3 

Mr. Reed's contract exempted him from the act 
establishing vestries passed by the Assembly May 23, 
1760. This permitted all parishes to elect their own 



NUMEROUS CHURCH BILLS 59 

vestries, but since it depended on the general vestry act, 
it was not considered valid, and later was repealed by the 
King. 4 This question as to whether the King or the 
colonists could select and remove rectors was one of the 
pre-Revolutionary controversies between Americans and 
their Mother Country. 5 

The Bishop of London explained that one primary ob- 
jection to the 1760 act was that it did not require 
vestrymen to say that they continued to be faithful to 
the Church of England. He recommended a stronger 
declaration that they would conform to the church liturgy. 

Objection was also raised to the bill's provision of 
punishing immoral ministers in temporal courts. The 
Bishop also declared that the clergy were not provided for 
properly, being made dependent on vestries. And again 
repeated was the 1759 declaration that the "whole right 
of patronage is undoubtedly in the Crown, but the Act 
takes away right and gives it to vestrymen." 6 

Still another of the many orthodox clergy bills was 
passed by the Assembly in 1762. Mention was also made 
therein that it was not to conflict with Reed's agreement. 
It was likely repealed by proclamation, because of pro- 
visions opposed by the Governor and other British 
authorities. 7 

Under this measure, ministers were to be engaged by 
vestries, at salaries of 133 pounds, six shillings and eight 
pence, the same amount as Mr. Reed's salary, besides 
their regular fees. If believed guilty of immorality or 
crime, they could be removed by the governor, with the 
consent of a majority of his council members. All had to 
have certificates from the Bishop of London, "ordained 
conformable to the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church 
of England, and is of a good Life and Conversation." 

For marrying a couple by license, a clergyman was to 
be paid twenty shillings; for marrying by banns, five 
shillings. The remuneration for a funeral sermon was 
set at forty shillings. If these rites were conducted by 
other persons, the regular rectors were nevertheless per- 
mitted to demand and receive the fees. 



60 CROWN OF LIFE 

Vestrymen were privileged to purchase glebe lands, and 
erect thereon a "convenient mansion-house, 38 x 18, with 
kitchen, barn, stable, dairy and meat house." If no house 
was provided for a rectory, the minister was to receive 
twenty additional pounds a year. 

The Bishop of London wrote May 3, 1762, referring to 
the general confusion of so many Assembly laws passed 
and repealed, to remind the colonists that, "All statutes 
made in England for the establishment of the Church 
shall be in force under the law in North Carolina." 8 



i Col. Rec, VI, 242. 

2 Ibid., 223. 

3 Ibid., 395. St. Rec, XXV, 415-22. 

4 Col. Rec, VI, xxxi, 395. St. Rec, XXV, 430-32. 

5 Col. Rec, VII, 152; IX, 81-84. 

6 Ibid., VI, 714-16. 

7 Ibid., V, pp. xxxi-xxxii. St. Rec, XXIII, 583-85. 

8 Col. Rec, VI, 716. 



XVII 

FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOL 

Despite the fact that Parson Reed was not paid regu- 
larly and encountered numerous handicaps in his local 
work, he undertook many more activities than called for 
in his contract. Chief among his outside interests were 
his efforts in behalf of education, resulting here impor- 
tantly in the opening of North Carolina's first incorporated 
school. 

As early as December, 1762, the House thanked him for 
the sermon at the beginning of the Assembly session, 
"Recommending the Establishing Public Schools for the 
Education of Youth." He was requested to furnish "the 
Printer with a copy thereof, that the same might be 
printed and dispersed in the several counties within this 
Province." 1 

Only slight encouragement had previously been given 
to public education. Children of the privileged classes 
were taught by private tutors or at private schools. Some 
studied in Northern States or in England. But poorer 
boys and girls had to learn as best they could, or not at 
all. Trade apprentices were sometimes taught the three 
R's by their masters. Charles Griffin, Church of England 
lay reader, who opened a school in 1705 in Pasquotank 
County, is believed to have been the first teacher to come 
to North Carolina. 2 

In 1749 John Starkey had introduced a bill for a free 
school. 3 In 1754 the sum of 6,000 pounds was authorized 
for schools, but was diverted for military purposes. Other 
funds appropriated were disallowed in England. 4 

The Assembly in 1758 asked King George that part of 
the sum be provided by the Crown for schools and 
churches, in return for Colonial war aid, but objections 
were raised up to 1763. Merchants are reported to have 
opposed use of public money for such purposes. 5 

Governor Dobbs frequently urged the need of better 
schools and more schoolmasters in the province. 6 On 



62 CROWN OF LIFE ' 

March 30, 1762, he wrote the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel that the number of clergy had been dimin- 
ished and that the inhabitants were more "dissolute and 
idle for want of clergy and school, there being not even 
a Parish Clerk in the Province to serve as a Schoolmaster 
or Reader." 7 For almost 30 parishes in the province, he 
pointed out, there were only seven clergymen, including 
one who did little. 8 

Largely due to Mr. Reed's influence, a school was opened 
here January 1, 1764, with Thomas Tomlinson as school- 
master. 9 The General Assembly on March 9 ratified an 
"Act for building a schoolhouse and schoolmaster's 
residence in New Bern." 10 Reed, John Williams, Joseph 
Leech, Thomas Clifford Howe, Thomas Haslen, Richard 
Cogdell and Richard Fenner were named as the first 
trustees. 11 

As "Missionary in Craven County," Mr. Reed reported 
on local church and school matters in general to the 
S. P. G. Secretary June 21. 12 First he told of the passage 
of a Vestry Act by the Assembly, with the aid and in- 
fluence of "our worthy Governor to whom the clergy in 
this Province can never sufficiently express their grati- 
tude." Under this act vestries could levy taxes of ten 
shillings for building churches, maintaining the poor, 
paying church readers and encouraging schools. 

Then he reported on the receipt of books and tracts on 
various occasions, commenting, "For tho' the heat of the 
Methodists be considerably abated, yet the distribution of 
such tracts will be of great service." 

About the school he wrote: "We have now a prospect 
of a very flourishing school in the town of New Bern & 
which indeed has been greatly wanting for several years 
past, in Dec'r. last Mr. Tomlinson, a young man, who had 
kept a school in the County of Cumberland in England, 
came here by the invitation of his brother, an inhabitant 
of the Parish. 

"On the 1st of Jan'y. he opened a school in this Town 
& immediately got as many scholars as he could instruct 
and many more have lately offered than he can possibly 
take to do them justice, he has therefore wrote to his 



FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOL 63 

friends in England to send him an assistant (Mr. Parrot) 
and a subscription for a school house has been lately 
carried on, with such success, that I have got notes on 
hand payable to myself for upwards of 200 pounds this 
currency (Equal to about 110 pounds Sterling) to build 
a large commodious School House in New Bern & which 
I shall endeavor to get completed as soon as possible, for 
during 11 years Residence in this Province I have not 
found any man so well qualified for the care of a school as 
Mr. Tomlinson. He is not only a good scholar, but a man 
of good conduct, has given satisfaction to the parents of 
such children as are under his care, and will be of infinite 
service to the rising generation . . . 

"I have rode my long circuit twice with great satisfac- 
tion. My congregations have been greatly crowded. My 
number of communicants increased and the return of 
my health made my duty not only easy but a real 
pleasure ! I have likewise taken care of St. John's Parish 
(in Carteret County) , which sickness would not permit me 
to do last autumn & have visited it twice — once at the 
court house where I baptised 24 children, again at a 
private house where I baptised 11 children; and again at 
the chapel upon Newport River where I baptised 14 chil- 
dren and administered the sacrament of the Lord's Supper 
to 36 communicants." 13 



i Col. Rec, VI, 955. 

2 Johnson, Guion Griffis, Ante-Bellum North Carolina, p. 18. 

3 Col. Rec, IV, 977, 990, 994. 
^ Ibid., V, xxv; VI, 5, 1006. 
5 Ibid., V, xxv, 1095; VI, 3. 

GIbid., V, 1014; VI, 116, 219, 449-50, 473, 839, 841, 1026, 1091, 1219. 

7 Ibid., VI, 709. 

sibid., 710. 

9 Ibid., 1048. 
io Ibid., 1145. 
ii St. Rec, XXV, 484-85. 

12 Col. Rec, VI, 1047-48. 

13 Ibid. 



XVIII 

OTHER SERVICES OF "PARSON" REED 

A voluminous letter writer, particularly in reporting to 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, the Rev. Mr. Reed's missives furnish today much 
information about the church, school and other progress 
during his era. He played a prominent Colonial role in 
many fields of service. 

Reed was one of four clergymen in the province praised 
in 1764 by Governor Dobbs, who wrote the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel that there were only six clergy- 
men in the province, four of whom performed their duty 
diligently — those at Edenton, Bath, Halifax and New 
Bern. 1 

The North Carolina Magazine or Universal Intelli- 
gencer, published by James Davis at New Bern, carried an 
advertisement in August, 1764, in the form of a "Notice 
to the Freeholders of Chrift Church Parifh, Craven 
County." 2 

This notice stated that the subscriber, Richard Cogdell, 
sheriff, would open polls at the courthouse for election of 
vestrymen of the parish and there would be a fine of 20 
shillings on every freeholder in the parish who failed to 
attend and vote. 

At that time and place, it was also stated, subscribers 
to the schoolhouse fund were requested to elect two com- 
missioners and a treasurer to direct and superintend the 
building of the school. 

All persons having bills against the parish and all owing 
money to the parish were asked to be at the church 
October 4 for settlement of accounts. 

Jacob Blount and James Davis, as church wardens, 
advertised in the latter's newspaper that on Thursday, 
January 3, 1765, pews in Christ Church would be rented 
to the highest bidders, for one year, by order of the 
vestry. 3 



OTHER SERVICES OF "PARSON" REED 65 

Accounts of the visit of the Methodist divine, the Rev. 
Mr. Whitefield, are contained in Mr. Reed's correspond- 
ence. The local rector wrote December 21, 1764, that the 
preacher had arrived here Saturday, November 17, while 
en route from the North to South Carolina and Georgia. 4 

At the request of local persons, Reed reported, White- 
field preached the next morning, Sunday, to a "very 
numerous Congregation. That afternoon he continued on 
his journey." At the time Reed said he was at a chapel 
35 miles from New Bern. 

Whitefield complained here of asthma, though he was 
fat and looked well, the New Bernian wrote. But, because 
of the asthma, he was said to preach seldom and never to 
read prayers at the same time. New Bern was the only 
place in which he preached in this province, Reed added, 
or "probably anywhere south of New York." 

Reed then added his opinion, "I think his discourse has 
been of some real service here." Whitefield recommended 
infant baptism, he remarked, and declared himself to be 
a member and a minister of the Church of England. 

From New Brunswick Whitefield wrote, "At New Bern, 
last Sunday, good impressions were made. The desire of 
the people in the section to hear the gospel makes me 
almost determined to come back early in the Spring." 
He did return the next Spring, on his way back North 
stopping over in New Bern and preaching here on Thurs- 
day evening of Passion Week in 1765 and also on Easter 
Sunday at Christ Church. 5 

Mr. Reed cooperated not only with Governor Dobbs but 
also with the latter's successor, William Tryon. Due to 
Governor Dobbs' advancing age and failing health, King 
George III of England, who had ascended the throne in 
1760 upon the death of his grandfather, King George II, 
commissioned Tryon as Lieutenant-Governor of North 
Carolina on April 26, 1764. 6 

Tryon was 35 years of age, a member of an English 
family of high standing. On October 10 he arrived in the 
colony, at Cape Fear. 7 Three days after the death of 
Governor Dobbs, he assumed temporary control of the 
provincial government, on March 31, 1765. 8 His com- 



66 CROWN OF LIFE ■ 

mission as governor arrived later and was officially opened 
before the Council on December 20. 9 

Not only loyal to the Crown but also zealous for the 
established church, Governor Tryon soon recommended 
passage of an Assembly bill for a better provision for an 
orthodox clergy. 10 Passed in May, 1765, u this re-enacted 
the repealed 1762 bill, with omission of the former dis- 
approved features. 12 

The stipend for the clergy was fixed at 133.6.3, with 
shorter and easier methods provided for their recovery by 
law. Certain fees were set for marriage ceremonies and 
funeral sermons. Vestrymen retained the right to tax 
and pay salaries, and were supposed to supply their 
rectors with glebes of 200 acres of good land and a 
residence, or pay 20 pounds a year more if no rectory was 
provided. 

The right of presentation or selection of ministers of 
the established church was granted to the Crown, through 
the Governor, thus relieving rectors from the so-called 
"insolence and tyranny of vestries." 13 The Governor and 
his Council were given authority to suspend clergymen 
deemed guilty of gross crime or notorious immorality. 
Their suspension was revocable by the Bishop of London. 

Although confirmed and ratified by the King, on the 
advice of his Privy Council, this act was easier to pass 
this time than to enforce. In some counties residents 
refused to receive the clergymen sent by the governor. 
Some men elected vestrymen would not qualify or act. 14 
Later the measure was amended in 1766 so that the salary 
of a suspended minister, or part of it, might be paid to 
his substitute. 15 

Under the act, Tryon officially commissioned Reed as 
rector of Christ Church, where he had already been 
serving for almost 12 years. An original manuscript of 
this commission is now on file in the New York Historical 
Society Library in New York City, among the papers 
collected by the late Dr. Francis L. Hawks, whose grand- 
father, John Hawks, had signed the document as a wit- 
ness. It reads as follows : 



OTHER SERVICES OF "PARSON" REED 67 

"To all, to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting. 

"Know ye, that I, William Tryon, Esquire, Lieutenant- 
Governor and Commander in Chief in, and over, the 
Province of North Carolina, and by virtue of His Majesty's 
Commission true and undoubted patron of the Rectory, 
Benefice or Parish of Christ Church in the County of 
Craven, in the Province aforesaid, and Diocese of London ; 
for divers good Causes and Considerations, me thereunto 
moving, have empowered, and by these Presents do em- 
power, Thomas Clifford Howe, Esquire, of said Craven 
County and Province aforesaid, to induct The Reverend 
James Reed, Clerk, A. B., into the Rectory, Benefice or 
Parish, of Christ Church, in said County, Province and 
Diocese of London. 

"In Testimony whereof I have hereunto set my Hand 
and Caused the Great Seal of the said province to be 
affixed at Brunswick this second day of September in the 
year of our Lord 1765 and in the Fifth Year of His 
Majesty's Reign. 

"William Tryon. (Seal) 
"By His Honour's Command 
Fount'n Elwin, p. Sec. 

"Inducted September the 10th, 1765, by me. 

(Test) "Thomas. C. Howe." 

Jno. Rice 
John Hawks 



i Col. Rec, VI, 1039. 

2 Photostat copies of this newspaper in the archives of the North 
Carolina Historical Commission, Raleigh, N, C. 

3 Ibid. 

4 Col. Rec, VI, 1060-61. 

5 Col. Rec, VII, 97, 104. 

6 Ibid., VI, 1043-44. 

7 Ibid., 1053-54. 

8 Ibid., 1320. 

9 Ibid., VII, 159-160. 
10 Ibid., 42. 

ii St. Rec, XXIII, 660-62. 

12 Col. Rec, VII, 150-153, 158; VIII, xliii. 

13 Ibid., VII, 97. 

14 Ibid., VIII, xliii. 

is Ibid., VII, 891-92, 920; VIII, xliv. St. Rec, XXIII, 759. 



XIX 

CHURCH AND SCHOOL 

On May 16, 1765, James Reed and 39 other prominent 
residents of New Bern and the vicinity reported to 
Governor Tryon that the money subscribed for establish- 
ment of a school at New Bern had been partly spent for 
materials for a school building and that they desired 
Thomas Tomlinson, the instructor, to have more pupils 
and be able to procure an assistant. 1 

Governor Tryon was requested to ask the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel to allow a yearly salary for 
Tomlinson. The schoolmaster, 31 years of age 2 when he 
had arrived here in December, 1763, was said to be en- 
deavoring to teach the children "in such branches of use- 
ful learning as are necessary in several of the offices or 
stations in life, and imprint on their tender minds the 
principles of the Christian religion agreeable to the 
establishment of the Church of England." 3 

This petition was signed by the following men: James 
Reed, Missionary, Thomas Clifford Howe, Samuel Cornell, 
John Williams, Richard Cogdell, Richard Caswell, James 
Davis, Peter Conway, John Clitherall, Jacob Blount, 
Richd. Ellis, Francis Macilwean, Alexdr. Gaston, Phil. 
Ambrose, Jacob Sheppard, Jos. Jones, John Daly, Will. 
Euen, Timo. Cleary, Jno. Pindar, Pat. Gordon, John 
Franck, Tho. Pollock, Bernard Parkinson, Wm. Wilton, 
Christ. Neale, Thos. Sitgreaves, Corn. Groenendyke, Jno. 
Green, John Fonville, Longfield Cox, Jno. Smith, Cullen 
Pollock, Richd. Fenner, Amb. Cox Bayley, Andr. Scott, 
Andr. Stewart, Eliu Cotting, Jno. Moore, Alex. Eagles. 

Reed reported that collections of school pledges were 
slow. 4 On July 10 there were 30 pupils, at 20 shillings 
proclamation money per quarter. 5 But, much of this was 
not paid. And it was not sufficient to operate the school 
efficiently. Hence, aid was desired from the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 



CHURCH AND SCHOOL 69 

Tryon wrote for this financial supplement, 6 and it was 
pledged by the Society. 7 He reported July 31 that there 
were only five clergymen then in the province, for 32 
parishes. Four S. P. G. missionaries were listed: Reed, 
in Craven County; Earl, near Edenton in Chowan; 
Stewart, at Bath in Beaufort County; and Moir, an 
itinerant missionary. 8 

As to Reed, the Governor added he had seen "much of 
him at the General Assembly held at New Bern. I really 
esteem him a man of great worth 9 . ... I pledged my 
endeavors to get decent clergymen," 10 and also to ask 
more aid from the Society. 11 

Referring to the condition of the churches, Tryon said 
that the church at New Bern was "in good repair;" at 
Wilmington there were "walls only ;" at Brunswick "only 
outside walls built and roofed." The Bath church was 
said to be "wanting considerable repairs," and Edenton, 
"wanting as much." Chapels were reported to have been 
established in every county, "served by a Reader where 
no clergyman can be procured." 12 Only one complete 
glebe house, with full glebe lands, was said then to be in 
the colony, "at Bath and nowhere else." 13 

That Summer Reed contracted a severe attack of yellow 
fever. 14 During his illness Tomlinson likely acted as his 
substitute in holding services at Christ Church. 15 

Mr. Reed wrote the Society January 14, 1766: "We 
have suffered the most intense heat during the last sum- 
mer that ever was known in the memory of man and 
about the middle of August I was seized with the yellow 
fever," an "exceeding violent" attack, "but soon over," 
though it left him permanently deaf. 16 

The Rev. Mr. Stewart had been brought to New Bern 
in a horse litter during December, having lost the use of 
his limbs from rheumatism, and was under the care of a 
physician, Reed reported. He commented also, "though 
people here are peaceable and quiet, yet they seem very 
uneasy, discontented and dejected." 17 

His illness over, Reed renewed his efforts for the local 
school, and on July 20 wrote to the S. P. G. : "Schoolhouse 
is at length enclosed . . . Large and decent Edifice for 



70 CROWN OF LIFE 

such a Young Country — forty-five feet in length, thirty 
in breadth, and has already cost upwards of 300 pounds 
this currency." 18 

All subscriptions had been expended, he said : 

"I have preached and begged in its behalf, until the 
suppliant is entirely weary and charity cold." The floors 
had not been laid, and the chimneys had not been built. 
"I have therefore sent a Bill of Exchange for my last half 
year's salary to New York to purchase Bricks for the 
Chimneys and intend at the next session of Assembly . . . 
in November to recommend the undertaking from the 
pulpit . . . 

" 'Twould give me great satisfaction to see a little 
flourishing Academy in this place. I have this affair much 
at heart, and the difficulties I have met with have given 
me much uneasiness. Mr. Tomlinson received a small 
additional stipend last Easter Monday. The vestry then 
agreed to pay him twelve pounds per annum for attending 
the church in New Bern at such times as I am obliged to 
be absent and attend the several Chapels. I have fur- 
nished him with Tillotsons Sermons and the congregation 
attends very regularly." 19 

The minister kept his word, and on December 1, 1766, 
the General Assembly incorporated the local school, 20 first 
to be so chartered in the province 21 and second private 
secondary school in English America to receive a charter. 

Under this charter, the schoolmaster had to be a mem- 
ber of the Church of England. 22 Upon recommendation 
of the trustees, he was required to obtain a license from 
the governor. 23 The eleven trustees were given authority 
to elect other trustees in case of vacancies 24 and to dis- 
miss schoolmasters without the consent of the Royal 
Governor, 25 powers to which British representatives later 
objected. Thus both school and church furnished some 
of the controversies which arose between English rulers 
and colonists in those pre-Revolutionary days. 

The Rev. Mr. Reed, named one of the school trustees, 26 
reported that the school building was completed in 1768, 
though it was perhaps used even before being finished, on 



CHURCH AND SCHOOL 71 

the corner site of the present school campus, on New and 
Hancock Streets. 27 

A tax of one penny per gallon levied for seven years on 
spirituous liquors imported through Neuse River helped 
support the new school, including the teacher's salary of 
twenty pounds, or about $100, a year, an assistant's 
salary of the same amount, and the tuition of ten poor 
children selected by the trustees. 28 



i Col. Rec, VII, 35-36. 

2 Epitaph on his tombstone in Cedar Grove cemetery states that 
Tomlinson died September 24, 1802, at age of 70 years. 

3 Col. Rec, VII, 35-36. 
* Ibid.. 98. 

5 Ibid. 

eibid., 102-4. 
7 Ibid., 458. 

siua., 102. 

9 Ibid. 

io ibid., 103. 
ii Ibid. 

12 Ibid. 

13 Ibid., 99. 
i-± Ibid.. 154. 

15 Ibid., 241; IX, 305. 

16 Ibid., VII, 154. 

17 Ibid. 

is Ibid., 241. 

19 Ibid. 

20 Ibid., 339, 420. St. Rec, XXIII, 678-80. 

21 Col. Rec, VII, 432, 458. 

22 ibid., 432. St. Rec, XXIII, 679. 

23 St. Rec, XXIII, 679. 

24 Ibid., 678-80. 

25 Col. Rec, VII, 316; IX, 243. 

26 Ibid., IX, 242. 

27 Ibid., VII, 750. St. Rec, XXIII, 679-80; XXV, 516. 

28 Col. Rec, IX, 239. St. Rec, XXIII, 680. 



XX 

ROYAL GOVERNOR WILLIAM TRYON 

As a "staunch churchman," 1 Royal Governor Tryon, 
as has been noted, did much to help the established 
church. The Rev. Andrew Morton referred to him as 
"that amiable and good man, who may be justly called 
the Nursing Father of the Church in this Province." 2 

The Rev. Mr. Moir wrote, "Governor Tryon, though a 
soldier, has done more for the settlement of a regular 
ministry in this province than both his learned Prede- 
cessors." 3 

Another minister, the Rev. George Micklejohn, later 
declared : "We have a governor who rules a willing Peo- 
ple with the Indulgent Tenderness of a common parent, 
who desires rather to be beloved than feared . . . 
defender and friend, the Patron and nursing father of the 
Church established amongst us — he is a Religious 
Frequenter of its Worship and a steady adherent to its 
Interest." 4 

In February, 1766, Tryon became a member of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, and gave it a handsome cash donation. 5 He made 
a contribution of forty guineas towards the church being 
built at Brunswick. 6 

However, his religious interests were not confined to 
his own denomination. Other faiths also grew stronger 
under his rule. Dr. Hugh Williamson, Presbyterian 
historian, in his history of North Carolina, wrote, "It was 
fortunate for the dissenters that Governor Tryon was not 
a bigot." 7 Bishop J. B. Cheshire wrote that Governors 
Johnston and Dobbs were both zealous churchmen but 
that Tryon did much more to advance religion in North 
Carolina. 8 

Thirteen Church of England ministers were in the 
province in 1767, a substantial increase over the five that 
were here when he arrived. They were listed April 30 of 
that year, as follows: 9 



ROYAL GOVERNOR WILLIAM TRYON 73 

Reed, Christ Church, Craven County; Micklejohn, St. 
Matthews, Orange County; Stewart, St. Thomas, Bath; 
Morton, St. George, Northampton; Samuel Fiske, St. 
John, Pasquotank; Thomas Floyd, Society, Bertie; these 
six established by letters of Presentation by the Governor. 

Daniel Earl, in charge in Chowan County, who was said 
never to have applied for Presentation ; Thomas Burgess, 
Edgecombe, Halifax, settled by Act of Assembly; John 
Barnett, St. Philip, Brunswick; John Wills, St. James, 
New Hanover; James Cosgreve; William Miller, St. 
Patrick, Dobbs; and Charles Cupples, St. John, Bute, 
"not yet established." 10 

These ministers had no easy time. Even Reed, as 
already indicated, had dire difficulties. In 1767, when 
there were 1,378 white taxables in Craven County, 11 the 
Rev. Mr. Stewart wrote the Society that Reed would have 
"been obliged to desert his parish" had not Mr. Dobbs 
induced the Society "to take him on their list . . . The 
parish of New Bern, known to be the most beneficial 
parish at that time in this province when money was 
plenty, on a better footing and punctually paid, was in- 
sufficient to support Mr. Reed (a parsimonious saving 
man and without children.") 12 

Mr. Stewart informed the S. P. G. that the lack of a 
currency medium made it impossible for North Carolina 
churches to pay proper salaries and that a nominal salary 
of 100 pounds sterling was hardly equal to 40 pounds 
sterling in South Carolina, Virginia and Northern 
provinces. 13 

But the rectors and missionaries performed valiant 
service along many lines. Among the tracts and sermons 
published by James Davis at New Bern was one by 
Stewart in 1758, entitled, "The Validity of Infant 
Baptism." 14 

A number of additional church acts were passed by 
the Assembly during Tryon's administration. In 1766 
the previous year's law concerning the orthodox clergy 
was amended so that if a minister was considered guilty 
of crime or immorality the governor and council might 
suspend him until the Bishop of London could review and 



74 CROWN OF LIFE 

decide the case; and meanwhile the church wardens and 
vestry could allow any deserving minister to substitute, 
at full or part pay. 15 

During that same year another act continued for 
another five years the bill for vestries passed five years 
earlier, permitting freeholders to change vestrymen not 
then serving. Any person elected to the vestry and re- 
fusing to serve was liable to a fine of three pounds. 16 

In that year, too, it was made lawful for a Presbyterian 
minister to marry a couple by license. 17 But the Church 
of England minister was still to get the fee whether or 
not he officiated, provided he did not refuse to serve. 
Prior to that, no minister except one of the established 
church was legally allowed to celebrate the rite of matri- 
mony. However, this 1766 act was soon repealed. 18 

The Vestry Act of 1768 19 was the last one seeking to 
perpetuate the Church of England in North Carolina. It 
was limited to five years, 20 but was then voted to be con- 
tinued for ten years, 21 though nullified by the Revolution. 

Governor Tryon selected New Bern as the seat of his 
provincial government, following a tour of two months 
through North Carolina. 22 As there was no suitable 
government house here, plans were made for the erection 
of one. 

The General Assembly in November, 1766, passed with 
a large majority a bill entitled: "An act for erecting a 
convenient building within the town of New Bern for the 
residence of the governor, or commander-in-chief for the 
time being." 23 The Governor approved the measure 
December l. 24 

Construction of "Tryon's Palace," costing about 
$80,000, 25 followed, 1767-70, with John Hawks from Eng- 
land as the supervising architect. 26 The Assembly met 
in 1768, 27 1769 28 and 1770 29 in the new school building at 
New Bern, and even used the schoolhouse also in 1771, 30 
1773 31 and 1774. 32 But, the new Palace was used chiefly 
then for Assembly meetings. The governor wrote June 
7, 1770, that he had just moved into the edifice, sooner 
than he had expected; 33 and the first meeting of the 
Assembly there was held the next December. 34 



ROYAL GOVERNOR WILLIAM TRYON 75 

Regarded as the most beautiful building in North or 
South America, 35 this Palace played an important role 
during Colonial, Revolutionary and early State history. 



i Col. Rec, VIII, xliv. 

2 Ibid., VII, 424. 

3 Ibid., 145. 
Ubid., 519-20. 

5 Ibid., 158, 162, 260. Haywood, Marshall DeLancey, Governor 
William Tryon and His Administration, p. 28. 

6 Col. Rec, VII, 164, 515. 

7 Williamson, Hugh, History of North Carolina, Vol. II, p. 118. 
s Cheshire, Sketches, p. 75. 

9 Col. Rec, VII, 457. 

10 Ibid. 

11 Ibid., 539. 

12 Ibid., 493. 
l3/&i(Z., 496. 

14 Ibid., VI, 316. Old copies of the pamphlet. 

15 Ibid., VII, 224. St. Rec, XXIII, 759. 

16 St. Rec, XXIII, 759-60. 

17 Ibid., 674. Col. Rec, VII, 432-33. Haywood, op. cit., p. 18. 
is St. Rec, XXIII, 826. Col. Rec, VIII, xliv. 

19 Col. Rec, VII, 920. 

20 ibid., VIII, 4-5. 

21 Ibid., IX, 1014-15. St. Rec, XXIII, 956. 

22 Col. Rec, VII, 2. 

23 Ibid.. 320. St. Rec, XXIII, 664-65. 

24 Col. Rec, VII, 338. 

25 Ibid., VIII, 626. 
2d Ibid., VII, 431. 

27 Ibid., 923, 984-85. 

28 Ibid., IX, 272. 

29 Ibid. 

so ibid., 224, 226, 272. 

31 Ibid., 371, 590. 

32 Ibid., 953. 

33 ibid., VIII, 211. 
Mlbid., 282, 285. 

35 Kimball, Fiske, Tryon' s Palace, published in Quarterly Bulletin 
of the New York Historical Society, for January, 1940, pp. 13-14. 
Lossing, Benson J., The Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution, Vol. 
II, p. 570. Col. Rec, VII, 695; VIII, 285. Don Francisco de Miranda, 
"the precursor of the Independence movement in Spanish America," 
who visited New Bern in 1783, is quoted by Francis Xavier Martin 
in The History of North Carolina from the Earliest Period, Vol. II, 
p. 265, as saying the Palace not only was the most beautiful in 
North America but had no superior in South America. 



XXI 

THE REV. JAMES MCCARTNEY 

At the beginning of the year 1767 James McCartney, 
a native of Ireland, was employed to assist Tomlinson with 
the New Bern school. 1 He continued in this capacity until 
May, 1768. when he left for England to become a candi- 
date for Holy Orders.- Very likely during this time he 
served as lay reader at Christ Church. 

Governor Tryon wrote the Bishop of London February 
12. 176S, that McCartney ''waits on you for orders of 
ordination.*' Mr. McCartney, he said, had also acted ably 
as tutor to Speaker John Harvey's children. 3 The next 
May 14 the Rev. Mr. Reed wrote the S. P. G. recom- 
mending McCartney for priesthood. - 

In his letter Reed reported that the ''duty upon rum 
will amount to about 60 pounds per annum this currency 
and will be sufficient to discharge present debts, com- 
pletely finishing the school house, and pay Tomlinson 20 
pounds per annum." He added. "T have baptized about 
100 whites and blacks in my own parish from Midsummer 
to Christmas last and about 30 in St. John's parish. '"■- 

Ordained as a minister of the Church of England, 
McCartney was licensed July 25 by the Bishop of London 
for service in North Carolina. During November he 
arrived back in New Bern, but was ill at home here for 
several weeks. Following his recovery, he reported later, 
he visited six extensive parishes, preached 49 sermons, 
and baptized 763 white persons and 27 Negroes between 
the middle of December and the latter part of May. 6 

"Though many of these parishes would have received 
me willingly, none would suit so weakly a Constitution as 
mine." he wrote. 7 During this period he undoubtedly held 
services here. Because of its climate, he decided the first 
of June. 1769. to settle in Granville County." 

For several years McCartney served the Granville 
parish faithfully. In 1771 he was one of those contract- 
ing with John Lvnch for erection of a church there. 



THE REV. JAMES M'CARTNEY 77 

Because he had known of John Hawks' excellent work 
here, he was probably the one responsible for obtaining 
Hawks to draw plans for the church. 9 

A number of citizens signed a petition in 1771, praising 
McCartney as "a credit to his holy profession" and recom- 
mending that his bounty from the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel be continued. It had been given him 
temporarily when he returned to America after being 
ordained. Since the subscribers were nominally church 
members, many of them belonging to Christ Church here, 
the list is quoted: 

John Simpson, Aquila Sugg, William Cray, Richard 
Ward, Samuel Johnston, Robert Howe, Francis Mackil- 
wean, Ben. Hardy, Thomas Hines, Richard Evans, 
Edward Hare, William McKinne, Thomas Gray, James 
Green, Junr., Joseph Leech, Joseph Montfort, James 
Blount, William Davis, Philemon Hawkins, John Campbell, 
A. Nash, Hugh Waddell, Andrew Knox, Wm. Thomson, 
Joseph Hewes, Jacob Shepard, Jacob Blount, James 
Bonner, William Haywood, Moses Hare, James Hasell, 
John Rutherford, Lewis deRosset, John Sampson, Alexr. 
McCulloch, William Dry, Samuel Cornell, Marmaduke 
Jones, Nat. Dukenfield, M. Moore, John Ashe, J. Moore, 
Cornelius Harnett, Richard Caswell and John Harvey. 10 

Also recommended for ordination orders by Governor 
Tryon in the same year as McCartney was a talented 
young actor named W. Giffard, who had come to the 
province with a company of strolling players. In a letter 
to the Bishop of London June 11, 1768, Tryon wrote from 
Brunswick that Giffard was 

"Most wearied of the vague life of his present pro- 
fession, and fully persuaded he could employ his talent to 
more benefit to society by going into holy orders and 
superintending the education of the youth in this 
province ... I was not assured how far your lordship 
would choose to take a member of the theater into the 
church . . . His behaviour has been decent, regular, and 
commendable ... If your lordship grants Mr. Giffard 
his petition, you will take off the best player on the 
American stage." 11 



78 CROWN OF LIFE 

The sermon preached by the Rev. Mr. Micklejohn, 
S. T. D., before "His Excellency Royal Governor Tryon 
and the troops raised to quell the late Insurrection at 
Hillsborough, on Sunday, Sept. 25, 1768," was printed by 
James Davis at New Bern. 12 



i Col. Rec, VII, 689. 

2 Ibid., 750. 

3 Ibid., 689. 
ilbid., 750. 
5 Ibid. 

Qlbid., VIII, 85. 

7 Ibid., 85-86. 

8 Ibid., 86. 

9 A copy of the original plans is filed in the collection of Dr. 
Francis L. Hawks, grandson of the architect, at the New York 
Historical Society Library, 170 Central Park West, New York City. 

io Col. Rec, IX, 61-62. 

ii Ibid., VII, 786-87. 

12 Ibid., 939, 976, 983. Copies of the sermon are extant. Dr. 
R. D. W. Connor, then Secretary of the North Carolina Historical 
Commission, edited one for The North Carolina Booklet, Vol. VIII, 
No. 1, July, 1908, pp. 57-58. 



XXII 

TRYON ASKS MORE AID 

Continuing his efforts to bolster the power of the 
Church of England in this province, Governor Tryon wrote 
Daniel Burton, S. P. G. Secretary, March 20, 1769, from 
Brunswick : 

"The infancy of the established religion in this province 
is undoubtedly the period and crisis for setting the Church 
of England here on a solid basis. We have laid a more 
firm and permanent foundation than any other colony can 
boast, she now stands in need of the utmost assistance of 
her friends to raise the superstructure ... I trust the 
Society will not withdraw the missions of 50 pounds per 
annum from those gentlemen who now enjoy them, but 
rather exert every other aid in their power to facilitate 
the propagation of the gospel here. 

"The bounty of the Society of 20 pounds per annum 
for two years to every minister coming out to this pro- 
vince is certainly of real service. If it could be continued 
for a longer duration it would be more beneficial. This 
additional munificence possibly might exceed the limits 
of the Society's economy. I do not presume to set bounds 
to their liberality, my intention is singly to represent 
what encouragement I judge would most effectually pro- 
mote the cause of religion and consequently the felicity of 
the inhabitants of the colony." 1 

Church attendance at New Bern was decreased that 
Autumn by one of the worst storms in the history of the 
town. A letter written from New Bern December 6 by 
the Rev. Alexander Stewart, of Bath, to the S. P. G. 
describes its results. 

Striking here September 7, it was reported as the 
"most violent Gale of wind and the highest tide that was 
ever known since this country has been inhabited . . . 
No place has suffered so much as this Town of New Bern. 

"One entire Street, Houses, Store Houses, wharves, etc., 
to the amount of near 20,000 pounds, were destroyed and 



80 CROWN OF LIFE 

swept off, together with several of the inhabitants, in a 
few hours' time. The roads were impassable for several 
weeks by reason of the trees fallen and the Bridges car- 
ried away and so great is the scarcity of small Boats at 
the Ferries, etc., that the people cannot travel nor attend 
the places of public Worship as usual . . . My private 
losses in the Hurricane upwards of 600 pounds ... I 
question whether these lower Inhabitants will ever get 
over it these seven years." 2 

Martin Howard, Chief Justice of the Province, an 
Anabaptist, was baptized by Mr. Reed during the Summer 
of 1770. The rector offered to baptize by total immersion, 
saying he regarded "the moral more than the mode." 3 
Afterwards Howard was reported as "a constant com- 
municant," 4 a valuable addition to Christ Church. 

Howard's judicial career in North Carolina was a period 
of disturbance and turbulence, (1767-1773) marked 
principally by the War of the Regulators and the trials of 
the offenders. He presided with impartiality and fair- 
ness, although historians long maligned him because of 
his strong Royalist leanings. 5 

While residing on his plantation, "Richmond," near 
New Bern, where he boasted that on "the best piece of 
meadow in Carolina" he had made two blades of grass 
grow where only one grew before, Howard founded St. 
John's Lodge, No. 2, A. F. & A. M. He served as its first 
Worshipful Master, after it received its charter January 
10, 1772. 6 

Later refusing to take an oath of allegiance to the new 
State of North Carolina, continuing loyal to his King, he 
moved to New York and Rhode Island in 1777, and the 
next year returned to his native England. He was exiled 
and banished from North Carolina by the Court of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions of Craven County in September, 
1777, and his local property was confiscated. 7 



i Col. Rec, VIII, 15. 

2 Ibid., 159-60. 

3 Ibid., IX, 6. 

4 Ibid. 

5 Haywood, op. cit., 49-50. Henderson, Archibald, article on 
Howard, published in The Charlotte Observer and other North Caro- 
lina newspapers, Sunday, March 17, 1935. 



TRYON ASKS MORE AID 81 

6 Original charters and minute books of St. John's Lodge are still 
in excellent state of preservation, in Masonic Temple vault here. 
The first entry in the minute books is dated January 9, 1772. 

7 Data on Howard from various references in Volumes IX, X and 
XI of Colonial and State Records of North Carolina; sketch of 
Howard by Francis Nash, taken from Vol. Ill, Biographical History 
of North Carolina; and memoir of Howard by Henry H. Edes, from 
Transactions of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, March, 1900, 
copy of which was presented to the New Bern Public Library by 
Alexander B. Andrews, of Raleigh. 



XXIII 

ROYAL GOVERNOR JOSIAH MARTIN 

Royal Governor Tryon left North Carolina the last of 
June, 1771, to become Royal Governor of New York, 1 and 
he was succeeded here by Royal Governor Josiah Martin. 
The latter, like the former, was deeply interested in the 
local school and church, and did much to try to improve 
educational and religious conditions throughout the 
province, but he served at a difficult period. 

Reed wrote of Tryon's transfer: "The clergy have lost 
a powerful advocate and a very sincere friend." 2 Tryon 
had believed that the church established by law was 
right and advisable for the colonists and that it was 
a major part of his duty to enforce the law and aid the 
church in every way possible. That he did this is proved 
by the fact that when he first came to North Carolina 
there were only five clergymen of the Established Church 
and when he left the province there were eighteen. 3 

Yet, Tryon headed a subscription to obtain a minister 
and a schoolmaster for Presbyterians in North Carolina, 
and he had many friends among that denomination and 
other faiths as well as in his own church. Presbyterian 
pastors united to praise him and denounce the Regulators 
upstate that opposed his government. 4 

A new church act in January, 1771, again gave to 
Presbyterian ministers the right to officiate at matri- 
monial ceremonies in their customary manner. This was 
passed with gubernatorial approval, but a clause sus- 
pended operation subject to the king's approval. 5 

This act, Tryon wrote, was an "indulgence" to which 
the Presbyterians were entitled for their support of the 
government: "If it is not thought too much to interfere 
with, and check the growth of the Church of England, I 
am sensible the attachment the Presbyterians have shewn 
to the government merit the indulgence of this act." 6 

Reed commented, regarding the act: "It was good 
policy to keep the Dissenters in as good humour as possi- 



ROYAL GOVERNOR JOSIAH MARTIN 83 

ble, at such a critical juncture. Should this Act receive 
the Royal assent, it would be a fatal stroke to the Church 
of England, but as the Insurrection is entirely quelled I 
flatter myself with hopes that the Act will meet with a 
repulse." 7 

Apparently Reed had no idea that the act would be 
given the King's approval, and the Board of Trade en- 
couraged His Majesty to disallow it. Accordingly, it was 
disallowed. 8 

Reed continued his church duties here and on July 2, 
1771, reported: "I have likewise baptized since Christ- 
mas last about 130 white children, Two white adults and 
seven black children in my own parish, and about 25 white 
children and one Adult in St. John's Parish . . . 

"P. S. The Rev. Mr. Stewart, the Society's Missionary 
at Bath died last Spring and has left a widow and four 
children, & his affairs in great confusion." 9 

One of Governor Martin's first official acts, soon after 
he arrived here, was to issue a proclamation August 30, 
1771, for "encouragement to religion and virtue," calling 
especially for the proper observance of the Sabbath. 10 

That month Reed was seized with "bilious fever" and 
was ill until Christmas. But, by being carried in a chair 
instead of riding horseback as usual, he managed to 
attend all his chapels, with the exception of one that was 
on an extremely bad road. 11 

Between midsummer and Christmas he baptized about 
90 white and five colored children in this parish, and bap- 
tized 25 white children in St. John's parish. He asked 
leave to move elsewhere, by doctor's advice, or go north 
for a few months or return to England to recuperate, if 
he should have a return of the disorder, but he added that 
he preferred to remain here. 12 

As Assembly notation on December 23 stated that the 
House had requested Reed to publish the sermon he had 
preached the previous day at the church in New Bern. 
He was allowed ten pounds to defray the printing cost. 13 

The Rev. Dr. Joseph Pilmoor, Methodist divine, 
preached here during the Christmas season of 1772. He 
spoke of the town and its residents in a complimentary 



84 CROWN OF LIFE 

way, saying, "In all my travels through the world I have 
met with none like the people of New Bern." 14 

While governor, Martin was a zealous churchman, 
though unable to accomplish as much as he would have 
liked for the Established Church. He wrote the Bishop 
of London : "I shall steadfastly labor for the better estab- 
lishment of our clergy, and until they can be put upon 
some more independent footing, I think it will not be good 
policy to augment their number in this Province." 15 



i Col. Rec, IX, 5, 9. 

2 Ibid., 5. 

3 Ibid., VIII, xlv. 

4 Haywood, op. cit., pp. 18-20, 188. Cheshire, op. cit., pp. 76-80. 

5 Col. Rec, VIII, 384, 479; IX, 5-7. St. Rec, XXIII, 831. 

6 Col. Rec, VIII, 527. 

7 ibid., IX, 6. 

8 Ibid., 7, 251, 284-85. 

9 Ibid., 6-7. 
io Ibid., 28-29. 
ii Ibid., 243-44. 
12 Ibid., 244. 

IB Ibid., 215, 219. 

M The Journal of the Rev. Joseph Pihnoor, D. D. (1769-74.) 

15 Col. Rec, IX, 306. 



XXIV 

TOMLINSON ASSISTS RECTOR 

Thomas Tomlinson, first professional teacher in the first 
incorporated school of the province, assisted the Rev. Mr. 
Reed with church duties for a number of years, and indeed 
likely served as lay reader here for many years after 
Reed's death. 

Governor Martin wrote from New Bern June 20, 1772, 
to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in behalf 
of Tomlinson, calling his "character and conduct not only 
unimpeached but standing in the fairest light." 1 

Tomlinson was reported by the Governor to continue 
"to officiate ... as Reader of this Parish, while the 
Rector is engaged near half the year in the remote parts 
of his wide parish; and acquits himself so admirably in 
that station that I cannot help wishing it may be seen 
consistent with the pious and laudable views of the 
Society to extend its bounty to him." 2 

The local school evidently progressed satisfactorily for 
perhaps eight years under Tomlinson's leadership, because 
there is little in Colonial Records about him until 1771. 
Reed wrote of him : "The first person I verily believe that 
ever taught school in New Bern for any considerable time 
without complaining of bad pay and very loudly; such 
complaints I have seen nailed up at the church doors." 3 

On February 15, 1772, 4 Reed wrote the Society that 
Tomlinson had incurred the displeasure of two trustees by 
reproving and suspending their children. On the previous 
September 14, the minister declared, the school trustees 
had met without notifying him and had accused Tomlinson 
of neglecting school affairs. Eight trustees were present 
at the meeting and voted seven to one against Tomlinson, 
Reed reported. Two more trustees were elected, to fill 
two vacancies. Mr. Parrot, the assistant to Tomlinson, 
was elected schoolmaster but declined to take the place. 

Reporting that he had tried in vain to get the trustees 
and Tomlinson reconciled, Reed said he resigned from the 



86 CROWN OF LIFE 

board. Although he had been its main originator and 
backer, he then suggested repeal of the local school act, 
to take away so much power from the trustees. 5 

Royal Governor Martin also sided with Tomlinson and 
Reed against the trustees. He wrote in June from the 
Palace at New Bern to the Bishop of London that the 
trustees had most unjustly dismissed Tomlinson, taking 
advantage of an Act of an Assembly, which gave this 
power, and urging that the King disallow the school act. 6 

Despite the pleas in his behalf, Tomlinson gave up the 
school April 13, 1772, and later that year went to Rhode 
Island for his health. The pupils were heavily in debt to 
him. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
granted him a gratuity of fifteen pounds, almost a year's 
stipend. After a trip to England he returned to New 
Bern and probably resided here many years. In 1789 he 
was listed as a Christ Church warden. He did not con- 
tinue his public school duties here, but likely served from 
time to time at Christ Church. 7 

Tomlinson is buried in Cedar Grove cemetery, at the 
left of the main entrance walk near the Weeping Arch, 
one of the oldest graves in the older part of the cemetery, 
for he died two years after the burial ground had been 
opened by Christ Church in 1800. His tombstone bears 
this simple inscription: 

"In Memory of Thomas Tomlinson who departed this 
life on the 24th of September, 1802. Aged 70 years." 

Reed also had his troubles with the colonists. In 1773 
a bill was passed by the Assembly "to regulate the at- 
tendance of the minister of Christ Church parish at the 
parish church in the Town of New Bern and at the several 
Chapels within said Parish." 8 

Due to the increased population in New Bern, with 
establishment of the governor's residence and courts 
here, "the more regular attendance of the minister" was 
said to be necessary for the church. Therefore, it was 
enacted that the "minister shall not be absent from the 
parish church, New Bern, more than six Sundays a 
year ... on some days between March and December 



TOMLINSON ASSISTS RECTOR 87 

. . . with regular attendance at the several chapels twice 
a year." 9 

Although this may sound today like a rebuke, it was 
explained at the time that it was intended to relieve Reed 
of "insupportable toil and labour," in journeying so far 
and often to the parish chapels, at his advancing age, as 
well as to make his attendance more frequent at the local 
church, "which was heretofore more than half the year 
without a clergyman." 10 

Mr. Reed wrote the S. P. G. in 1773 that the last Vestry 
Act passed in 1768 would expire that year and a perma- 
nent law was badly needed. "If it should miscarry," he 
remarked, "I shall have very little hopes of ever seeing 
the Church of England established in this Province." 11 

On January 7, 1774, he seemed quite discouraged and 
unhappy. He told the Society that until a Court law had 
been settled there was no chance of getting a new Vestry 
law. "Nor can taxes be collected for support of church 
or State," he added. "I must ingenuously confess I am 
heartily weary of living in this land of perpetual strife 
and contention ; such I have found it by the experience of 
upwards of twenty years. Without the benevolence of 
the Society it would be quite intolerable." 12 

Between December 21, 1773, and June 21, 1774, he 
reported, he baptized 153 white children, seven colored 
children and three white adults. The number of his com- 
municants was said to be 168. 13 

The March Assembly passed an act to amend and 
further continue the Vestry Act for ten more years, the 
rector reported on July 19. But this new bill related only 
to the maintenance of the poor. For, establishment of 
the Church of England, with the approach of the Revo- 
lution, seemed to have gone forever in North Carolina. 14 

This law, Reed commented, empowered vestries to build 
workhouses for the poor and permitted keepers to inflict 
corporal punishment on inmates behaving refractorily. 
"I wish the amendment had been entirely omitted," he 
wrote. "The very thought of whipping the aged and 
infirm, though a little refractory, is shocking, and such 
authority ought certainly to be vested in persons of more 



88 CROWN OF LIFE 

humanity than is generally to be found in the keepers of 
Workhouses." 15 



i Col. Rec, IX, 304. 

2 Ibid., 305. 

3 Ibid., VII, 98. 

4 Ibid., IX, pp. 238-44. 

5 Ibid., 243. 
sibid., pp. 305-7. 

7 Ibid., pp. 317-18; X, 428. St. Rec, XXV, 35. Cheshire, p. 176. 

8 Col. Rec,. IX, 443, 507-8, 583. 

9 St. Rec, XXIII, 911. 
io Col. Rec, IX, 658. 

ii Ibid., 341. 

12 Ibid., 815. 

13 lUd., 1015. 

14 IUd., pp. 1014-15. 

15 Ibid., 1015. 



XXV 

THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 

AND 

DISESTABLISHMENT OF THE CHURCH 

"The beginnings of the Establishment in North Carolina 
were marked by the Cary Rebellion ; the struggles against 
it were continuous, and the close of its career follows hard 
on the War of the Regulation and the battle of Alamance," 
later wrote Stephen B. Weeks. 

"There was less freedom of education in North Carolina 
in 1773 than in 1673; a more rigid conformity was re- 
quired in the province than in England. This was 
injustice, and intolerance, persecution and tyranny. The 
history of Colonial North Carolina is a continual struggle 
against a government which sought to repress all aspi- 
rations whether political, religious or intellectual ; for her 
the War of Independence was not a Revolution only; it 
brought with it a Reformation, and made possible a 
Renaissance." 

Objections to the Established Church thus formed one 
of the main conflicts between British rule and many of 
the colonists. Governor Martin continued to do his duty 
as he saw it by trying to strengthen the church. In 1774 
he recommended to the Earl of Dartmouth "the ex- 
pediency of giving greater encouragement to the Estab- 
lishment of the Church of England in a political view 
with respect to religion." 1 

But, the rule of the church in North Carolina had then 
passed. The Church Act of 1768 was re-enacted in 1774, 
to remain in effect for ten years. Under that measure, 
the governor could suspend a clergyman for misconduct, 
but only until the Bishop of London could pass on the 
case. 2 However, with the mounting rise of opposition to 
English authority, this and other church laws were 
disregarded. 



90 CROWN OF LIFE 

The first provincial convention, first popular legislative 
assembly to be called and held in defiance of Royal protest 
anywhere in America, met at the Palace in New Bern 
August 25, 1774. 3 The second provincial convention was 
held here the following April. 4 

News came of the fights between patriots and English 
at Lexington and Concord in New England, and local 
disorders broke out. Governor Martin fled from New 
Bern and took refuge on a British warship off Fort 
Johnston near Wilmington. 5 He was the last of the Royal 
Governors in North Carolina. Citizens set about forming 
a State government. 

Proceedings of the Committee of Safety at New Bern 
July 21, 1775, tell of the observance of the day before as 
"a day of fasting, humiliation and prayer to humble our- 
selves before God," as ordered by the Continental Con- 
gress. "Divine service was performed in the church and 
a very animating and spirited discourse suitable to the 
occasion was read by a member of the Committee, to a 
very crowded audience." 6 

A delegation from the Committee had been sent to Reed 
prior to the day of prayer "to request and entreat him to 
perform divine service in his church on the fast day and 
deliver a sermon ; but their entreaties were vain, he giving 
as a substantial reason, that as he was one of the mission- 
aries of the honorable Society for Propagating the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts, he should render himself obnoxious to 
the Ministry and of course lose his mission." 7 

For thus "deserting" his congregation, the special 
committee passed a resolution "earnestly requesting" the 
vestry to suspend Mr. Reed as rector of the church and 
stop his salary. 8 The general Committee of Safety 
unanimously confirmed this suspension. 9 

The Rev. Daniel Earl wrote the S. P. G. from near 
Edenton August 30 that "the situation of the clergy in 
this part of the world is at present truly critical. Some of 
them have been suspended, deprived of their Salaries . . . 
on account of charges against them of opposing the 
general cause of America." 10 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 91 

Reed wrote the S. P. G. Secretary February 2, 1776, 
of "the difficulties I laboured under occasioned by the 
present unnatural civil dissensions. To live peaceably 
with all men, if possible, was my determined Resolution, 
and after the Committee's suspension I lived very retired 
for two or three months. 

"In the meanwhile several intimations were given me, 
that my attendance at church as usual would not be dis- 
agreeable, and about the middle of November last 
Providence presented an opportunity of decently closing 
the breach, since that time I have done duty as usual and 
flatter myself shall meet with no more interruptions. That 
the speedy and merciful interposition of the King of 
Kings may restrain the exorbitant passions of men, check 
the desolating progress of civil discord and heal the 
ghastly wounds of our country is the daily fervent prayer 
of, Sir, 

"Your most obliged, etc. 
"James Reed. 
"N. B. Any person prompted by curiosity to open this 
Letter is desired to Seal it up again in a Cover and forward 
it." 11 

Although the congregation seemed willing for Reed to 
resume his pastoral duties, he did not have an easy time. 
Naturally he remained a staunch loyalist, true to his King 
and his native land, failing to follow the lead of the 
patriotic New Bernians who began to call for freedom and 
independence. 

The Rev. L. C. Vass, D. D., Presbyterian minister and 
historian, wrote here years later that boys of the town, 
likely prompted by their elders, would beat drums at the 
church door and shout "off with his head," when Reed 
offered the usual prayers for the King. 12 

Even as late as 1772 it had been legally decreed that 
prayers for the Royal family be offered in all parish 
churches, chapels and other places of divine worship in 
this province. 13 So, Reed was obeying local law as well as 
custom. 

The Provincial Congress on May 1, 1776, passed a 
resolution providing that vestrymen legally elected in 



92 CROWN OF LIFE 

each parish of the province on Easter Monday and taking 
the oath recommended by the preceding congress should 
be declared legally named and be authorized to proceed 
with parochial business. Where no vestries had been 
elected, the freeholders of the parish were called to meet 
on the first Monday in July to elect vestrymen. Those 
chosen were directed to qualify and take the oath, serving 
until the next Easter Monday. 14 

The church was permanently disestablished by the 
State Constitution adopted in December, 1776, by the 
Constitutional Convention at Halifax: 13 

"No establishment of any one religious Church or 
Denomination in this State in Preference to any other, 
neither shall any person, on any pretence whatsoever, be 
compelled to attend any Place of worship contrary to his 
own Faith or Judgment, or be obliged to pay for the 
purchase of any Glebe or the building of any House of 
Worship, or for the maintenance of any Minister or 
Ministry, contrary to what he believes right, or has volun- 
tarily and personally engaged to perform, but all persons 
shall be at Liberty to exercise their own mode of Worship. 
Provided. That nothing herein contained shall be con- 
strued to exempt Preachers of treasonable and seditious 
Discourses, from legal trial and Punishment."' 16 

To keep ministers out of politics, it was set forth in the 
Constitution that no clergyman of any denomination 
should be eligible to serve as a member of the House of 
Commons. Senate or Council of State while acting as a 
pastor. 17 

Another section read: "No person who shall deny the 
Being of God. or the Truth of the Protestant religion, or 
the divine Authority either of the Old or New Testament, 
or shall hold religious Principles incompatible with the 
Freedom and Safety of the State, shall be capable of 
holding any Office or Place of Trust or Profit in the civil 
Department within this State." 18 

This seemed to limit office holding to Protestants, but 
it was not strictly enforced. For, many offices were later 
held by Catholics. William Gaston, for instance, held 
important offices, though a devout Catholic. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 93 

But, to protect the right for subsequent generations, 
Gaston at the State Constitutional Convention in 1835 at 
Raleigh insisted upon the changing of the word, 
"Protestant," to "Christian." Since then he has been 
known as "The Father of Religious Liberty in North 
Carolina." 19 In 1868 the clause was further broadened so 
as to debar from office only persons who denied "the 
Being of Almighty God."-' 

An ordinance of the 1776 convention at Halifax pro- 
vided for the status quo of church property, all glebes, 
lands and tenements, churches, chapels and houses re- 
maining for the use of that religious denomination for 
which purchased, built or devised.-' 1 

All ministers of every denomination were then legally 
granted the right to perform marriage ceremonies. 22 For 
many years ministers of denominations other than the 
Church of England had been denied this full privilege 
during Colonial days. 

Strange as it may seem, no guarantee of religious 
liberty was contained in the Federal Constitution drafted 
by the Constitutional Convention in 1787 at Philadelphia. 
More criticism of this arose in North Carolina than 
probably anywhere else, and many Carolina leaders in- 
sisted that religious freedom be specifically promised in 
the Constitution. 

The first ten amendments to the Federal Constitution 
were adopted as the "Bill of Rights." The first amend- 
ment still starts : "Congress shall make no law respecting 
an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exer- 
cise thereof." North Carolina accordingly ratified the 
Constitution at Fayetteville November 21, 1789. 23 



i Col. Rec. IX, 1086. 

2 St. Rec. XXIII, 956. 

3 Col. Rec, IX. 1041. 
-4 Ibid., 1201-5. 

5 Ibid., X, 41-50. 

eibid.. 115. 

-Ibid., 115-16. 

SIbid., 116. 

9 Ibid. 

io Ibid., 23S. 
ii Ibid., 42S. 
i- Vass, op. cit.. p. 78. Whitford, op. tit., p. 206. 



94 CROWN OF LIFE 

13 Col. Rec, IX, 295. 

14 Ibid., X, 553-54. 

15 Ibid., 1006-13. St. Rec, XXIII, 980-84. 

16 Section XXXIV. 

17 Section XXXI. 
is Section XXXII. 

19 Connor, Judge Henry G., William Gaston, pp. 35-38. Creecy, 
Richard Benbury, Grandfather's Tales of North Carolina History, 
pp. 107, 119-22. 

20 Article VI, Section 8. 

21 St. Rec, XXIII, 986-87. 

22 Ibid., XII, 726; XXIII, 997. 

23 ibid., XXII, 47-49. 



XXVI 

DEATH OF MR. REED 

During the Colonial era from 1662 to 1775 only about 
fifty Church of England clergymen had been in North 
Carolina, 1 though for this entire time the denomination 
was the legally-established church of the Province. 

The Rev. Mr. Reed remained longer in New Bern than 
any other Colonial minister stayed anywhere in North 
Carolina; and his 24 years here constitute a longer local 
service than that of any of the other 25 rectors of Christ 
Church. 

All three Royal Governors whom he served praised him 
highly; and under difficult circumstances he managed to 
get along fairly well during the early Revolutionary 
period. Evidence points to the fact that he continued to 
hold services at the church. 

Described as an exceptionally fine gentleman and 
Christian leader, he is considered one of the most out- 
standing ministers in Colonial America. Of him it has 
been said, "A very worthy man and the most influential 
of the Episcopal ministers who labored in North Carolina 
before the Revolution." 2 

Zealous, accurate and well-informed, he took prominent 
roles in educational and civic affairs as well as religious; 
he did not confine his activities to New Bern, but preached 
and worked at many outlying points in his wide Craven 
County territory. Not only by members of his congre- 
gations was he respected, but also by other denominations. 

In his voluminous writings, still preserved in Colonial 
Records, it is difficult to find any unkind words against 
others, although sometimes his patience was sorely tried 
by what he considered Colonial shortcomings and lack of 
church support and religious interest. 

On May 7, 1777, before the close of the Revolutionary 
War, he passed away in New Bern. Hence, he was not 
living to see the British take possession of the town 
August 25, 1781. He likely retained his Royalist sym- 



96 CROWN OF LIFE 

pathies to the last, but he must have suspected that in 
the end America would win its freedom and independence 
from the Mother Country. Worry probably hastened his 
death. 

His body was interred in the churchyard near Middle 
Street. In recent years the brick mound had overgrown 
with ivy. A fund for the purpose of properly marking 
the grave was started by the late Mrs. Mary 0. Dunn 
Windley, and additions were made by others. St. Ann's 
chapter of the Woman's Auxiliary took over the project, 
and in 1937 had the tomb rebricked and covered with a 
long, flat, marble slab, bearing this inscription : 

"In Memory of Rev. James Reed, first rector of Christ 
Church. Died 1777. Missionary S. P. G. Preacher, 
Teacher, Advocate of Free Schools." 

Dying intestate, without children, only half of his 
estate was legally allotted to his widow, Hannah Reed, 
under an Assembly Act of 1756 ; but it was argued that all 
his property had been acquired through his marriage, so 
under a special Act in 1780 all his personal estate was 
allowed to go to the widow. 3 

As Mrs. Reed owned land in the colony, she was per- 
haps a native, lending credence to the theory that the 
minister did not marry her until he moved to America. 
She may have been his second wife, as he is said to have 
brought a family with him from England. Little is 
known about her, but she likely assisted her husband 
materially in his church and educational work. 

Reed had not been paid regularly by the church, and he 
seemed generous with the little money that he received, 
as evidenced by his willingness to pledge half his year's 
salary for the purchase of bricks for the local schoolhouse 
chimneys. So, he could not have saved much money from 
his meager earnings. However, he evidently was not ex- 
travagant. The Rev. Mr. Stewart wrote of him, likely 
intending it as a compliment, that he was "a parsimonious 
saving man." 4 

After his death it is probable that Tomlinson preached 
from time to time at Christ Church. There may have been 
other local lay readers as well as visiting ministers. For 



DEATH OF MR. REED 97 

about eight years, so far as can be ascertained, there was 
no regular rector. 

Churches and congregations were, of course, adversely 
affected by the Revolutionary War. Many clergymen, of 
English birth and sympathy, returned to England. Some 
continued their activities in this region, as the Rev. 
Messrs. Pettigrew, Cuppels, Blount, Earl, and Taylor. 5 
But, for some years following the war the church and, 
in fact, all denominations remained weak, poor and 
discouraged. 6 

The Church of England was especially hurt by the 
Revolution, because so many intense patriots of other 
denominations regarded it as "British" and in their 
political opposition to the Crown they also objected to the 
English church. 

There was no Episcopal Bishop in America after the 
Revolutionary War. In 1783 in Maryland was chosen the 
name, "The Protestant Episcopal Church of Maryland," 
and this main name was adopted by the General Conven- 
tion, which in 1785-86 framed a Constitution, revised the 
prayer book and named Bishops, even prior to the adoption 
of the Federal political Constitution. 7 



i Vass, op. cit., p. 29. 

2 Reed was praised by Weeks, Hawks, Vass, Cheshire and other 
church historians. This quotation is from a Baptist historian, Dr. 
G. W. Paschal. 

3 St. Rec, XXIV, 332-33. 

4 Col. Rec, VII, 493. 

5 Vass, 78, 196. 

6 Ibid., 78. 

7 McConnell, op. cit., pp. 220-21, 240-53. Other Church histories. 



XXVI I 

THE REV. LEONIDAS CUTTING 

The second regularly-commissioned rector of Christ 
Church parish to serve for any length of time was the 
Rev. Dr. Leonidas (Leonard) Cutting, " a man of piety 
and learning and of high reputation in the Church." 1 

Rector here from 1785 to 1792, 2 a worthy successor for 
"Parson" Reed, he was instrumental in helping arrange 
the first steps that led to the provincial organization of 
the church, with naming of the "First Bishop of North 
Carolina." 

Those post-war years were extremely difficult ones in 
many respects. Disease had caused many deaths, besides 
the war casualties. Smallpox had been so violent here in 
1779 that it prevented the regular session of the General 
Assembly at New Bern. 3 Court records on May 15 show 
that the section was so "generally infested with smallpox, 
Court ordered all business continued to the next term." 4 
Another epidemic came during the Summer of 1781. 5 
Yellow fever is said to have caused the deaths of Mr. and 
Mrs. John Wright Stanly in 1789 during one of the 
epidemics of that dread affliction. 

Accordingly, for this and other reasons it was hard to 
build the church to its former importance. As an illus- 
tration, there was a law passed Dec. 29, 1785, imposing a 
fine of five pounds on any person trying to obstruct the 
ways leading to houses of public worship. 7 

The years of Dr. Cutting's ministry were important in 
the political history of America. In 1787 the Federal 
Constitution was drafted. Two of the signers were New 
Bernians, frequently attending Christ Church — Richard 
Dobbs Spaight and William Blount. George Washington 
was inaugurated in 1789 as the first President of the 
United States. He visited New Bern and was gaily enter- 
tained here April 20-22, 1791. 8 

Many prominent laymen resided in New Bern during 
those stirring times to help Dr. Cutting improve church 



THE REV. LEON I DAS CUTTING 99 

and civic conditions. Recognizing the need for better 
care of the poor and aged of the community, leaders had 
the State legislature pass a law in 1787 to allow Craven 
County to conduct a lottery to raise money for a County 
Home. Managers appointed were Spaight, Stanly, John 
Hawks, Abner Neale and Spyers Singleton. 9 

On January 6 of that year the lot on the southeastern 
corner at Middle and Johnson Streets which had been pro- 
vided for the residence of the Episcopal rector was turned 
over to the school trustees. 10 

The public school here had been reorganized in 1784, 
following the Revolutionary War interruptions. An Act 
of the General Assembly of the independent State gave it 
the name of the New Bern Academy, and appointed the 
following nine outstanding members on its self-perpet- 
uating school board: 11 

Richard Caswell, who had served four terms as 
Governor and later was to serve three more years, longer 
than any other Governor under the independent State; 
Former Governor Abner Nash, important leader, who is 
buried on his estate, "Pembroke," across Trent River; 
Richard Dobbs Spaight, who served 1792-95 as the first 
native-born Governor of North Carolina and who was also 
a Member of Congress as well as signer of the Federal 
Constitution, buried on his plantation, "Clermont," across 
Trent River; 

William Blount, who signed the Constitution, then later 
became Governor of the Territory South of the River 
Ohio and Senator from Tennessee ; John Wright Stanly, 
illustrious patriot, who lost fourteen privateers during the 
Revolution and is said to have lent about $80,000 to help 
Gen. Nathaniel Greene win the war, buried in Christ 
Churchyard ; 

John Sitgreaves, Federal judge and a member of the 
Continental Congress; Gen. William Bryan, who served 
as Craven County sheriff, member of the Committee of 
Safety, delegate to three provincial conventions and the 
State Constitutional convention, representative in the 
House of Commons, and Christ Church warden, besides 



100 CROWN OF LIFE 

taking a gallant role in the Revolutionary war, especially 
at the battle of Moore's Creek Bridge ; 

Dr. William McClure, the only surgeon in his Revolu- 
tionary regiment ; and Spyers Singleton, scholarly soldier, 
who played a vital role in the famed case of Bayard versus 
Singleton here in 1786, when it was held for the first 
recorded time in America that a legislature is limited in 
power by the Constitution. 12 

Caswell died soon after being elected Speaker of the 
State House in 1789. The Assemblymen attended his 
funeral in a body. He was buried near Kinston with 
Masonic honors, having been second Grand Master of 
State Masons. 

A funeral oration for "The most Worshipful and Honor- 
able Major General Richard Caswell, Grand Master of 
Masons of North Carolina," was delivered in Christ 
Church, New Bern, on Sunday, November 29, before St. 
John's Lodge, No. 2, A. F. & A. M., of this city. 13 

The address was printed here by Francis Xavier Martin, 
who had come to town as a penniless young Frenchman 
about 1782. After the death of James Davis in 1785 
Martin became New Bern's chief printer and editor, and 
later one of North Carolina's main historians. He was 
appointed a Federal Judge of the Territory of Mississippi, 
and then served as the first Attorney General and after- 
wards as Chief Justice of Louisiana, dying in that 
Southern State as a wealthy miser. 

As the local church was thus the scene of many public 
gatherings and as the congregation included so many 
prominent statesmen and other local leaders, it was 
natural that under Dr. Cutting's inspiration the members 
should begin to plan for a larger edifice to replace the 
small Colonial church on the corner of the extensive parish 
property. 

In his diary William Attmore reported in 1787, "There 
is a small church here with a square tower, Cupola and 
Bell and it is the only place of Worship in the Town." 14 

Looking towards the erection of a new church in the 
future, a State Act was passed in 1789 to allow acceptance 



THE REV. LEON I DAS CUTTING 101 

of donations and bequests for building an Episcopal 
church and supporting a minister. It was enacted that 

"John Fonveille, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Richard 
Nixon, Isaac Guion, Thomas Tomlinson, John Daves, 
Thomas Haslen, David Witherspoon and William Good, 
Esquires, be appointed churchwardens to receive and 
recover such subscriptions." They were "empowered to 
prosecute in law or equity against any person or persons 
who may refuse to give up such subscriptions." 15 

Under the act, the congregation was authorized to con- 
vene in the church on the first Monday after Easter and 
elect seven persons to serve for three years as church- 
wardens, and thereafter to meet on the same day every 
year. 

Much time was required to get the money and erect the 
new church, however. It was not consecrated until 
February 1, 1824. 16 



i Cheshire, the Rt. Rev. Joseph B., Decay and Revival, (1800- 
1830), published in Sketches of Church History in North Carolina, 
p. 258. 

2 Ibid. 

3 St. Rec, XIII, 792; XIV, 66. 

4 Extract from Court Records of Craven County, dated May 15, 
1779, reprinted in St. Rec, XIV, 302. 

5 St. Rec, XV, 443, 600. 

6 Whitford, op. cit., 173. Year of death from tombstones in Christ 
Church yard, and from Stanly's will probated here in June, 1789, 
Craven County Records of Wills, Book A, pp. 198-99. 

7 St. Rec, XXIV, 746-47. 

8 President Washington's Diaries, 1791-99, transcribed and com- 
piled by Joseph A. Hoskins, pp. 20-22. Henderson, Dr. Archibald, 
Washington's Southern Tour, 1791, pp. 84-101. 

9 St. Rec, XXIV, pp. 821-23. 
io Ibid., 825. 

ii Ibid., 607-9. 

12 North Carolina Court Records, May term, 1786, at New Bern, 
I N. C, p. 42 (5). 

13 St. Rec, XXI, 221-22. Masonic minute books of St. John's Lodge. 
Original records of the address in pamphlet form. 

14 Journal of a Tour to North Carolina, 1787, James Sprunt His- 
torical Publications, Vol. XVII, No. 2. 

is St. Rec, XXV, 35-36. 

is The original certificate of consecration, in large frame, hangs in 
the vestibule of Christ Church. 



XXVIII 

STEPS TOWARD ORGANIZATION 

The first movement to reorganize the Episcopal church 
in North Carolina after the Revolutionary War was 
started by the Right Reverend William White, D. D., of 
Pennsylvania, who in October, 1789, wrote to Governor 
Samuel Johnston, of "Hayes," at Edenton, relative to a 
church revival in this State. 1 

The American Prayer Book adapting the ancient liturgy 
to the new republic had been adopted by the General 
Convention at Philadelphia, and diocesan organizations 
were being perfected in various States. 2 

Governor Johnston felt that he could not officially call 
the clergy of one denomination to meet, so he referred the 
matter to the Rev. Charles Pettigrew, rector of St. Paul's 
Church, Edenton. Pettigrew wrote to Dr. Cutting at 
New Bern, the Rev. Mr. Wilson of Martin County, the 
Rev. Mr. Blount at Tar River, and others, asking them to 
meet at Tarboro on the second Thursday of the following 
May. 3 

Dr. Cutting also heard from Bishop White, expressing 
pleasure at the convention plans; and he received word, 
too, from the Committee of Correspondence, Philadelphia, 
as to union in the General Convention of the church. 4 

That the ministers in those days did not even know the 
names of all other Episcopal rectors in North Carolina is 
proved by the letters exchanged by Pettigrew and Cut- 
ting. Naming a few clergymen, the former wrote as 
follows, relative to the proposed first State Episcopal 
convention : 

"These are all the clergy of the Episcopal order that I 
have heard of in the State. Should you know or hear of 
any to the Southward of New Berne, I must request the 
favor of you to acquaint them with the matter . . . 

"I presume I need not inform you, that there has been 
a Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Clergy from the 
United States, at Philadelphia, from the 8th of July to the 



STEPS TOWARD ORGANIZATION 103 

8th of August last, and that they have appointed in one of 
their Canons such a meeting again on the first Tuesday in 
August, 1792, and successively on that day in every third 
year afterwards." 5 

According to Dr. Cutting's reply November 28, 1789, 
conditions in the local church at the time must have been 
quite discouraging. After saying that he did not know 
with certainty where any of the clergy dwelt except 
Blount, he commented, 

"How it may be in other Parishes or Congregations in 
this State I know not ; but here by the Expiration of an 
Old Law a few years ago, we have no Church Wardens, 
Vestry-men, nor any officer to take any charge or care of 
the Church. Whatever meetings therefore we may hold 
in the church will be spontaneous, unbacked by authority ; 
but which cannot be remedied without an application to 
the Assembly." 

Concluding, Cutting said he would "diligently enquire 
whether there are any of our Episcopal brethren to the 
Southward of New Bern." He reported he had received 
a letter, urging North Carolina to join the General 
Convention. 6 

The first Protestant Episcopal convention of clergy and 
laity of North Carolina was held June 5, 1790, at Tarboro, 
following these advance preparations. The Constitution 
of the General Church adopted the previous year at 
Philadelphia was approved. 7 

"Parson" Pettigrew wrote to Bishop White the day 
after the convention that the only persons attending the 
meeting besides himself were one clergyman (probably 
the Rev. James L. Wilson) and two laymen, Dr. John 
Leigh and William Clements, of Tarboro, "of distinguished 
merit and reputation." Pettigrew acted as chairman of 
this first convention ; Clements as secretary. 8 

A small attendance was also reported for the second 
convention held later that year, November 12-13, at 
Tarboro. The Rev. Mr. Pettigrew, the Rev. Mr. Wilson 
and the Rev. Dr. Micklejohn, of the clergy, and Dr. Leigh, 
William McKenzie and Joseph Leech, of the laity, were 
named delegates to the General Convention to be held at 



104 CROWN OF LIFE 

New York in 1792. Colonel Leech, Mayor of New Bern, 
was also named on the standing committee for the State. 9 
Another meeting was called for Tarboro in October, 
1791, but there were not enough delegates there to trans- 
act business. 10 



i Pettigrew, the Rev. William S.. The Conventions of 1790, '93 
and '94 and the Bishop-Elect, published in Sketches of Church His- 
tory in North Carolina, edited by Bishop Cheshire, p. 1S2. 

- McConnell. op. cit.. pp. 259-63. 

3 Pettigrevr, op. cit.. pp. 1S2-S3. 

iloid.. 1S3-S4. 

5 Ibid., 1S3. 

6 Pettigrew Papers, 17S9. Also, Pettigrevr, op. cit.. 184. 

" The Proceedings of the First Convention of the Clergy (and 
Laity; held at Taroorough. in pamphlet edited by Bishop Cheshire, 
The First Effort to Organize the Church in North Carolina, or The 
Early Conventions, pp. 9-11. 

* Pettigrew, Conventions, p. 1S5. 

9 Minutes of the convention from the North Carolina Chronicle or 
Fayetteville Gazette, of date November 22, 1790, published in Ches- 
hire's The Early Conventions, pp. 13-15. 
io Pettigrew, op. cit.. 1SS. 



XXIX 

THE REV. SOLOMON HALLING 

One result of the 1790 church gatherings at Tarboro 
was that Dr. Solomon Hailing, of New Bern, was recom- 
mended for Holy Orders by the State Standing Committee 
and was ordained in 1792 by the Rt. Rev. James Madison, 
D. D., first Bishop of Virginia. In 1792 he succeeded Dr. 
Cutting as rector of Christ Church here, the third regular 
rector. 1 

Dr. Hailing was a native of Pennsylvania. 2 Educated 
as a physician, he served to the close of the Revolutionary 
War as surgeon of the Fourth North Carolina Regiment. 3 
Likely he came to New Bern as a teacher at the New Bern 
Academy. He has been described as "a most exemplary 
man, and the most zealous clergyman of his time in the 
State." 4 He acted as rector here until 1795 when he 
moved to Wilmington. 5 

Even before his ordination, Dr. Hailing had spoken and 
preached in New Bern. A pamphlet printed at New Bern 
gives his "discourse delivered before St. John's Lodge of 
Masons, No. 2, on the Festival of St. John the Baptist, 
June 24, 1789." He often delivered sermons and orations 
for the Masons, according to the ancient Masonic minute 
books still extant. In 1791-92 he was Worshipful Master 
of the local lodge, which he also served at different times 
in other capacities. 6 

Hailing was a member of the Masonic committee that 
delivered an address of welcome to George Washington 
during the first President's visit here in April, 1791. " 
Washington is said to have worshipped in Christ Church 
while here, as President James Monroe and Vice President 
John C. Calhoun are reported to have also done during a 
later visit. 

It is an interesting fact that William Joseph Williams, 
who in 1794 at Philadelphia painted the celebrated pastel 
known as the Masonic portrait of Washington, later moved 
to New Bern, died here in 1823, and is buried in Cedar 



106 CROWN OF LIFE 

Grove cemetery. The original portrait, the only authentic 
picture of the first President from life in Masonic regalia 
still in existence, now hangs in the old Masonic lodge 
room of the Alexandria-Washington Lodge, No. 22, at 
Alexandria, Va. 

Christ Church was still the only house of worship in 
New Bern in 1792. Jedidiah Morse described it then, in 
his American Geography, as follows: "The Episcopal 
church is a small brick building, with a bell. It is the only 
house for public worship in the place." 8 

It was Halling's purpose at that period to do all he 
could to further the cause of church union and the elec- 
tion of Mr. Pettigrew as the first Bishop of North 
Carolina. He did his best to arouse the North Carolina 
Episcopalians towards these two ends. 

As to the naming of a bishop, Dr. Leigh, eminent 
physician, politician and churchman, had written to 
Pettigrew March 29, 1791: 

"I think it is something which may be deferred for 
sometime yet; but should it become necessary, I see no 
reason why we cannot appoint or recommend one of those 
now in the State. If the appointment of a Bishop will 
tend in any degree to raise once more the fallen state of 
our Church, I am clearly convinced that it should be done. 

"This is the object to which the attention of the Clergy, 
as well as the Laity, should be directed. Every exertion 
is now called for aloud. The enemies of our Church, who 
are many, wish its destruction. Religion of whatever 
kind can only be sustained by the zealous exertions of its 
supporters. I fear that the mode adopted by our last 
Convention will be productive of no good. No subscrip- 
tions or donations have yet reached me, nor have I heard 
of any one forwarding, although I had reason to expect 
some." 9 

A third church convention was held at Tarboro 
November 21, 1793. Six persons attended, three ministers 
and three laymen, one of each being present from Christ 
Church: the Rev. Mr. Wilson, of Williamston, who pre- 
sided ; Mr. Clements, who served as secretary ; Dr. Hailing, 
who also took a leading role; the Rev. Mr. Gurley, of 



THE REV. SOLOMON HALLING 107 

Murf reesboro ; F. Green, of Craven County; and Dr. 
Leigh. 

Recommendation was made that a convention of church 
people in the State be called for the last Wednesday in 
May, 1794, at Tarboro, to form a Constitution and elect a 
bishop. 

Dr. Hailing wrote Mr. Pettigrew December 16, 1793, 
that there were too few at the gathering to choose a 
bishop. 10 Mr. Pettigrew was probably too ill at that time 
to attend. Hailing was strongly in favor of Pettigrew's 
election as bishop. He added: 

"I . . . have declared myself a volunteer in this sacred 
cause ... I believe it will be the general wish, that you 
should be elected to the Episcopacy of North Carolina. 
My exertions shall not be spared on this occasion — and 
you must not refuse. Consider it a call from Heaven, and 
reflect on your former vows. Excuse me if I speak freely. 
My whole soul is engaged in this important business. 
May GOD in mercy for our country preserve you to over- 
look and bless His little flock. This is the ardent wish and 
prayer of my dear and Rev. Sir, your unworthy brother 
in our LORD JESUS." 11 

Paying tribute to Dr. Halling's zealous work for the 
church, Bishop Cheshire wrote, "It was by his earnest 
assiduity that the Convention of 1794 was gotten to- 
gether. If the other ministers had had his enterprising 
and courageous spirit we should have had another tale to 
tell." 12 

Dr. Hailing left New Bern in 1795, accepting a call as 
rector of St. James Church, Wilmington. He also acted 
as principal of the Wilmington Academy. In 1809 he 
moved to the Diocese of South Carolina, where he "con- 
tinued the same course of devout faithfulness, and 
endeared himself to all his brethren in that new home. 
He died in 1813, much honored and lamented by the 
Bishop and the Clergy of that Diocese." 13 



i Cheshire, The Early Conventions, p. 15. 

2 Cheshire, Decay and Revival, p. 258. 

3 Henderson, op. cit., p. 94. 

4 Cheshire, Decay and Revival, 258. 

5 Ibid. 



108 CROWN OF LIFE 

6 Minutes of St. John's Lodge. 

" Masonic Lodge minutes. Report of a lodge meeting on April 29, 
1791. Masonic minute books and pages are not numbered. 

8 Morse, Jedidiah, American Universal Geography, Vass, op. cit., 
pp. 86-87. 

9 Pettigrew, Conventions, pp. 187-88. 

io Cheshire, The Early Conventions, pp. 17-18. 
ii Pettigrew, op. cit., 190-1. 

12 Cheshire, Decay and Revival, 258. 

13 ibid., 261. 



XXX 

FIRST BISHOP ELECTED FOR NORTH 
CAROLINA 

Largely due to Dr. Halling's efforts, Mr. Pettigrew was 
elected the first Bishop of North Carolina at the conven- 
tion held in Tarboro May 28-31, 1794. 1 

Dr. Hailing and Dr. Isaac Guion represented Christ 
Church at this convention. The latter presided over 
several sessions. The former served with the Rev. Mr. 
Wilson and Robert White of Tarboro in drafting the 
Constitution ratified by the delegates. 2 

More than a year later, on June 9, 1795, Mr. Pettigrew 
wrote to Bishop White, telling of the North Carolina 
church meeting and his election as bishop on a vote by 
ballot. He told of the Constitution adopted, and the plan 
to unite with the General Convention. Besides his 
personal recommendation from the State gathering, he 
said he could add a testimonial from the Edenton district, 
where he had lived and preached for twenty years. 3 

Bishop White referred him to the convention to be held 
at Philadelphia in September, 1795, "this body being 
clothed with authority to decide whether it would be 
willing to accept a recommendation drawn by a committee 
appointed by the North Carolina convention." 4 

Because of the distances at which the clergy and laity 
lived from him and the lack of transportation and com- 
munication facilities, Pettigrew was said to have been 
denied the personal acquaintanceships which would have 
justified use of the regular form of recommendation pre- 
scribed by the General Convention. An informal recom- 
mendation had instead been drafted, to fit the local 
situation. 5 

Pettigrew expected to attend the General Convention, 
and had it met as scheduled, he very likely would have 
been consecrated as the first Bishop of North Carolina. 
Five days prior to the time of the meeting he set out 



1 10 CROWN OF LIFE 

towards Philadelphia, but he found so many cases of 
yellow fever at Norfolk that he returned home. There 
was so much yellow fever in the country that the con- 
vention did not meet. 6 

The next General Convention was to have met in Phila- 
delphia during September, 1798, but it also failed to 
convene, due to the fact that the epidemic of yellow fever 
was still raging. Pettigrew was notified of the cancel- 
lation of the gathering." 

A special convention was called for June, 1799, at 
Philadelphia ; and the next regular convention met in 
1801 at Trenton, N. J. But, because of his poor health, 
Mr. Pettigrew was unable to attend either one. For years 
he suffered from tuberculosis. 8 

Without ever being consecrated Bishop, Mr. Pettigrew 
continued to serve his parishioners through the Lake 
Scuppernong section. Refusing to accept compensation, 
and probably acting also as doctor and teacher since he 
had formerly been head of the Edenton Academy, he 
toiled valiantly in home mission work. 

From the beginning of his ministry in 1775, as a 
missioner in the Edenton region and then as the Rev. Mr. 
Earl's successor at St. Paul's Church there, Mr. Pettigrew 
served in the Albemarle region until his death in 1807. 

The funeral was conducted from St. Paul's Church by 
the Rev. Jonathan Otis Freeman, a Presbyterian minister, 
who later assumed charge of the New Bern Academy. 
While teaching in the Edenton Academy, 1808-11, he also 
was paid for "delivering lectures to the students on the 
Sabbath." At that time there was no rector at St. Paul's, 
there were no other Presbyterians in Edenton and about 
the same men acted as Academy trustees and church 
vestrymen. 

Originally called Pettigrew's Chapel, a church that 
came to be known as St. David's parish was erected in 
1803 on "Parson" Pettigrew's plantation, "Belgrade," 
near Creswell, as a center for his work through Tyrrell 
and Washington Counties. It is still standing. 

As a feature of the new Pettigrew Memorial State Park 
in that area, his home, built 1796-98, with quaint windows 



FIRST BISHOP ELECTED FOR NORTH CAROLINA 1 1 1 

and double chimneys, has been recently restored. Also 
reconditioned is the old cemetery where members of the 
family are buried, including Parson Pettigrew's famous 
grandson, Gen. James Johnston Pettigrew, son of a Miss 
Shepard of New Bern, and the youngest general in the 
Confederate Army, who lost his life at Gettysburg. 

The parson's epitaph reads : "Sacred to the memory of 
the Rev. Charles Pettigrew, late minister of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church and Bishop-Elect of the State of North 
Carolina, who after a life devoted to the cause of religion 
and virtue fell asleep in Jesus on the 8th of April, A. D. 
1807, Aged 63 Years." 9 

Thus failed the first efforts to obtain an Episcopal 
Bishop for North Carolina. The late lamented Rt. Rev. 
Joseph Blount Cheshire wrote that the prejudice against 
the British before, during and after the Revolution re- 
acted against their Established Church in the New World, 
but that other causes also contributed to the "lethargy" 
among the scattered congregations. 

The previous governmental patronage left bad effects, 
he said, and time was necessary to overcome them. 
Bishop Cheshire referred to the period as the "death- 
struggle of the old Colonial system." 10 



i Cheshire, The Early Conventions, p. 24. 

2 Ibid., pp. 21-29. 

3 Pettigrew, Conventions, pp. 193-95. 

4 Ibid., pp. 195-96. Pettigrew Papers. 

5 Cheshire, The Early Conventions, pp. 28-29. Pettigrew, Con- 
ventions, 194-95. 

6 Pettigrew, op. (At., 196. 
'Ibid., 197. 

sibid., 197-201. 

9 Data on the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew came from many sources, in- 
cluding various references in Colonial Records, but chiefly from 
Cheshire's Sketches, pp. 215-16, 219-22, 229-40, 256, which contain 
accounts of his life by his descendants, Gen. J. Johnston Pettigrew, 
and the Rev. William S. Pettigrew. 
10 Cheshire, Decay and Revival, 243-53. 



XXXI 

THE REV. THOMAS P. IRVING 

For the next twenty-two years, from 1796 to 1818, 
local schoolmasters served as rectors and assistant rectors 
of Christ Church, again proving the close relation and 
interdependence of school and church in this community. 

The Rev. Thomas Pitt Irving, a native of Somerset 
County, Maryland, became principal of the New Bern 
Academy in 1793, following his graduation from Prince- 
ton in 1789. He held a degree of Master of Arts, and was 
an exceptionally brilliant and versatile man. 1 

Following his ordination to the diaconate by Bishop 
White in 1796, Irving assumed charge of Christ Church 
parish, in addition to his school duties. His seventeen 
years as local rector constitute the second longest term 
of service, next to that of Mr. Reed. 

During Mr. Irving's twenty years' residence in New 
Bern it was his misfortune to witness three major 
disasters: the burning of the old schoolhouse where he 
taught, the burning of historic Tryon Palace, where he 
then resided and taught school, and another serious 
epidemic of yellow fever. 

After having been used for about 28 years, the old 
school building was destroyed by fire in 1795, said to have 
been due to the carelessness of a singing class there. 2 By 
permission of the legislature, the local school was then 
held in the Palace, 3 no longer serving for governmental 
purposes since New Bern was not retained as the capital 
of the State. 

Irving and his family also made their home in the 
Palace. Under the Council Chamber in the main portion 
of the three-building edifice, they kept wood and hay in 
the cellar. On the night of February 27, 1798, a Negro 
woman went to look for eggs in the hay. With her she 
carried a lighted pine-wood torch. Some sparks fell on 
the dry hay. A blaze ensued. Unfortunately a hole was 
cut in the floor above to pour water on the flames. It 



THE REV. THOMAS P. IRVING 113 

acted as a flue and the fire became uncontrollable. The 
central structure was entirely destroyed. 4 

The minister toiled incessantly during the yellow fever 
epidemic later that year. 5 He conducted the funeral 
services for practically all the victims. Scores of in- 
habitants died of the disease. Records show that a pall- 
bearer would often be the next one carried to a grave. 6 

So many persons succumbed that at night trenches 
were dug in the Episcopal church yard in a line near the 
adjoining property to the northwest on Middle Street, 
and the bodies were buried there indiscriminately. 7 It 
was probably some of these hurriedly-interred corpses 
that were unearthed a few years ago when excavations 
were made for the foundations of the parish house 
addition. 

These numerous burials in the church yard, already 
well filled with graves, perhaps formed the main reasons 
why the church opened Cedar Grove cemetery in 1800. 
This cemetery was transferred in 1854 to the city by the 
church. 8 An old Indian burying ground is said to have 
been originally in the hilly part of this cemetery property. 

A Mason himself, Irving usually held funeral services 
for Masonic brethren from the Episcopal Church, except 
when they were too numerous during epidemics. Fre- 
quently he composed original odes befitting the character 
of the deceased. 9 

The memorial sermon for Gov. Richard Dobbs Spaight 
was to have been preached by Irving, after the statesman 
had been mortally wounded in a duel here on September 
5, 1802, with John Stanly, son of John Wright Stanly and 
State legislator and Congressman of note. 10 As illness 
prevented him from delivering this memorial, he had his 
prepared address printed in part in The Raleigh 
Register. 11 

Governor Spaight was a communicant and vestryman 
of Christ Church. He had served as chief executive when 
the University was formally opened January 15, 1795, at 
Chapel Hill, and was present for that occasion, although 
it was almost a month later when the first student en- 
rolled for this first existing State University to open its 



114 CROWN OF LIFE 

doors. Women in New Bern and Raleigh presented 
mathematical instruments to the institution. Mrs. 
Spaight is said to have been the first woman to attend a 
University commencement. She was Miss Mary Leech, 
daughter of Col. Joseph Leech, of New Bern. 

A poem used to close Irving's eloquent tribute was 
copied for the epitaph on Spaight's tombstone across 
Trent River. Adapted from the ode composed in 1746 by 
William Collins (1720-1756), it follows: 12 

"So sleeps the brave — he sinks to rest 
With all his country's wishes blessed. 
When Spring, with dewy fingers cold, 
Returns to deck his hallowed mould, 
She there shall find a sweeter sod 
Than fancy's feet have ever trod. 
By fairy hands his knell is rung, 
By forms unseen his dirge is sung, 
There honor comes, a pilgrim grey, 
To bless the turf that wraps his clay, 
And freedom shall a while repair 
And dwell a weeping hermit there." 
Spaight's ancestors had long been active members of 
Christ Church. He was born in New Bern March 25, 
1758, the son of Richard Spaight, a grand-nephew of 
Royal Governor Dobbs, and Elizabeth Wilson Spaight, 
daughter of Mary Vail Jones Wilson Moore. 13 

This maternal grandmother, Madame Moore, was a 
great social leader of the old days. She resided at Cler- 
mont, which once consisted of 2,500 acres. Three times 
she married — first for position, then for money, and 
finally for love. 

Madame Moore is said to have owned a stall in Christ 
Church twice as large as any of the other stalls. President 
Washington and President Monroe are reported to have 
worshipped there, as well as Sir William Draper, "Con- 
queror of Manila" and other visitors. 14 When she came 
to town from her estate, she traveled in an elegantly- 
equipped large rowboat, manned by six oarsmen in 
handsome liveries. It is still rumored that some of her 
money is buried at Clermont. 



THE REV. THOMAS P. IRVING 115 

Besides being a talented writer and orator, Mr. Irving 
was particularly interested in dramatics and ranks as one 
of the pioneer amateur dramatists and producers in 
North Carolina. His school was one of the first to present 
dramas as public programs. 

On December 23, 1793, New Bern Academy students 
gave "a dramatic piece in ridicule of scholastic pedantry," 
followed by an oration by William Gaston on the blessings 
of American independence. The Commencement program 
included an original skit written and produced by Irving 
and a play, "Mock Doctor or Dumb Lady Cured." 15 

As a dramatist, as well as a prominent Mason, Irving 
probably had much to do with encouraging St. John's 
Masonic lodge to build the large Masonic temple and 
theatre that still stands here, the oldest theatre still in 
regular use in America. 

A second charter obtained by the lodge was dated 
January 26, 1795, the organization then being listed as 
Number 3 instead of 2, and activities were resumed. 
Professor Irving was a main leader. He served as Wor- 
shipful Master and in many other official capacities, 
including chaplain. 16 

Masonic meetings were held regularly at Tryon's 
Palace. After the Palace was burned, the Masons planned 
to erect a building of their own. Irving was the orator 
on the occasion of the laying of its foundation stone April 
15, 1801. The structure was completed by 1808. 17 

Undoubtedly Irving also had much to do with the con- 
struction of the school building that replaced the former 
schoolhouse that had been burned on the present campus. 
The new one was finished in 1806, and is now the oldest 
school building still in use in North Carolina. 18 

That period was one of the greatest building eras in 
the history of the town. Many church leaders were 
among the numerous citizens erecting fine homes in the 
city or the surrounding sections during those first years 
of the nineteenth century. The Episcopal church was 
still the only house of worship here at the opening of that 
century. 



116 CROWN OF LIFE 

Church and secular music was also encouraged by Mr. 
Irving during his local residence. He must have been a 
talented composer as well as poet, for his odes were set 
to music at various times, as reported in the Masonic 
minutes. One entry tells of the singing of an anthem that 
he had set to music for a special Masonic program. 19 

Another entry relates that the minister conducted a 
service for St. John's Day June 24, 1798, at Christ Church, 
at which he preached "an elegant discourse," on the 
theme, "Stand still, brethren, and consider the wonderfull 
works of God," as taken from Job. 37 :6-14. As a musical 
feature, "a Masonic ode composed by Chaplain T. P. 
Irving was sung by many ladies and gentlemen in a 
masterly manner." 20 

From the use and names of his whipping rods, Mr. 
Irving was known to the school boys as "Tippoo Sahib" 
and "The Great Mogul." 21 Although recognized as a 
teacher and preacher of much ability, he was considered 
by some citizens to be "cold and perfunctory." 22 

Yet, this seems hardly a fair characterization for any- 
one who could send downtown to buy commonplace 
supplies in the following poetic manner: 23 

"Palace, New Bern, Nov. 11, 1797. 
"Messrs. George and Thomas Ellis: 

"I send you, sirs, a little boy 
To buy me neither robe nor toy, 
Nor rum, nor sugar, nor molasses, 
Coffee, tea, nor empty glasses; 
Nor linen cloths, nor beau cravats, 
Nor handkerchiefs, nor beaver hats ; 
Nor anything, or less or more 
Of all that constitutes your store, 
Save only this, a noon-day taper, 
And one thing more, a quire of paper. 
Of these pray send the exact amount, 
And charge them both to my account; 
And rest assured my prayer shall be, 
Kind sirs, for your prosperitee. 

"Thos. P. Irving." 



THE REV. THOMAS P. IRVING 117 

To give an idea of the local school at that period, Mr. 
Irving taught three classes in 1793. The first class 
studied the three "R's" — reading, writing and arithmetic ; 
the second, "Mathematics, in the various branches of that 
science" ; and the third, "the dead languages." 24 

Until about 1813 he stayed in New Bern, as rector and 
instructor, then he went to Hagerstown, Md. 25 There he 
died early in 1818, while principal of the Hagerstown 
Academy. 26 

While here, he taught many local young men who 
became outstanding citizens of the State, thus reflecting 
credit on his remarkable store of diversified knowledge as 
well as on his high character and example. 

Among his students were William Gaston, noted orator, 
State Supreme Court Justice and composer of the State 
anthem ; Dr. Francis Lister Hawks, Episcopal minister, 
educator and historian ; the Rev. Cicero S. Hawks, Bishop 
of Missouri; Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr., who served as 
Governor, 1835-36, with his father being the only instance 
of father and son becoming Governors of North Carolina ; 
and George E. Badger, Superior Court Judge, United 
States Senator and Secretary of the Navy. 



i Cheshire, Sketches, 258-59. That Mr. Irving was in New Bern 
in 1793 is proved by an advertisement in the North Carolina Gazette 
here, dated October 12, 1793. 

2Whitford, op. cit., 202. 

3 Vass, op. cit., 92-93. 

4 Ibid., 93. Masonic minutes, 1798, give date of fire. 
5Whitford, 202-5. 

& Ibid., 204. 

t Ibid. 

s Marble tablet at the top of the entrance arch at the cemetery 
gives these dates. 

9 Masonic minutes mention such odes at different times. 
io Original correspondence between Spaight and Stanly prior to 
their duel is in the Hawks collection at the New York Historical 
Society Library, to which previous reference has been made. These 
letters give exact dates and details of the controversy, 
ii Andrews, Alexander B., Richard Dobbs Spaight, pp. 118-20. 

12 Andrews, op. cit., 120. Governor Spaight and his son, Governor 
Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr., are buried in the family burial plot on 
their old plantation, "Clermont." This poem appears on his tomb- 
stone. Not far distant is the tomb of New Bern's third Governor, 
Abner Nash, on his plantation, "Pembroke," along the Trent River. 

13 Most of the information on Spaight used in this chapter may be 
found, with much other material, in Mr. Andrews' brochure. 

14 Whitford, 14. 



1 18 CROWN OF LIFE 

15 Excerpts from The North Carolina Gazette, New Bern, for Jan- 
uary 4 and July 12, 1794, quoted by Dr. Archibald Henderson in his 
article on early amateur dramatic groups in North Carolina which 
was published December 19, 1926, in The Winston-Salem Journal 
and other North Carolina newspapers. 

16 Masonic lodge minutes. 

17 Ibid. Irving as orator for the laying of the cornerstone is listed 
with other local officers on an oblong silver plaque that came from 
the original foundation stone and is now in the possession of the 
local lodge. This small plaque was taken away by Northern soldiers 
who used the Masonic Temple as a hospital during the War Between 
the States. It was returned to the owners in 1898 by St. John's 
Lodge, No. 1, of Providence, R. I. 

18 North Carolina State Educational authorities say they know of 
no older schoolhouse still being used in the State than the New Bern 
building which school records show was finished in 1806. 

19 Masonic minute books here. 

20 ibid. 

2i Wheeler, John H., Historical Sketches of North Carolina, Vol. I, 
p. 120. Whitford, op. cit., 208. 

22 Cheshire, Sketches, 259. 

23 Vass, op. cit., 93. 

24 Coon, Charles Lee, North Carolina Schools and Academies, p. 50. 

25 Cheshire, Sketches, p. 259. 

26 in The Raleigh Register, Raleigh, N. C, for February 6, 1818, 
appeared this item: "Died, Lately, the Rev. Thomas Pitt Irving, 
principal of the Hagerstown Academy, formerly of New Bern." 



XXXII 

THE REV. GEORGE STREBECK 

AND 
THE REV. JOHN PHILLIPS, ASSISTANT RECTOR 

Succeeding Mr. Irving as rector of Christ Church was 
another educator, the Rev. George Strebeck, who also did 
double duty as minister and school principal, 1813-15. 

Little is known about Mr. Strebeck, but it is a matter 
of church record that in 1814 and 1815 he was assisted 
by the Rev. John Phillips. Much more is known about 
Mr. Phillips and his work. 1 

From the Revolution to 1817 there were six Episcopal 
candidates for Holy Orders in North Carolina. Three of 
these were from New Bern, all being teachers : Solomon 
Hailing, Thomas Irving and John Phillips. The other 
three were Adam Boyd, of Wilmington ; James L. Wilson, 
of Martin County ; and John Avery, of Edenton. 2 

Phillips had originally come from England as one of the 
Wesley brothers' lay-preachers. His wife was a ward of 
one of the famed Wesleys. When his associates took up 
Methodism, he adhered to his church. 

While in New Bern assisting Mr. Strebeck at the 
school, Phillips became a candidate for the Episcopal 
ministry and was ordained in August, 1814, by Bishop 
Moore of Virginia. He continued to aid Mr. Strebeck at 
both the local church and school until his removal to 
Virginia in 1815. 

During 1818 Mr. Phillips returned to North Carolina 
from Virginia and served as a missionary in this State 
until 1822. He organized Episcopal churches at Tarboro 
and Warrenton, and revived a number of other churches. 

To show what a wide territory he covered, he reported 
in 1820 that he had traveled 220 miles a month since the 
previous convention. Regular work was undertaken at 
Tarboro, Washington, Warrenton and Blounts Chapel 
(Trinity Church, Chocowinity) . In addition, he visited 



120 CROWN OF LIFE 

Hillsboro, Raleigh, Williamsboro, Oxford, Scotland Neck 
and rural congregations in Pitt and Beaufort Counties. 

While Mr. Phillips was serving at Tarboro, the first 
steps were taken to organize Christ Church, Raleigh, and 
build a church building there in 1820; but it was not 
organized and admitted to the convention until 1822. 

Probably from such strenuous travels and earnest 
endeavors, Mr. Phillips' health failed about 1822. He 
returned to Virginia, where he died in 1831. He was 
particularly lauded for his fervent piety and great 
simplicity of character. 

The Rev. Mr. Strebeck left New Bern at about the same 
time that Mr. Phillips did in 1815. He had likely had a 
difficult time here. The War of 1812 took place during 
most of the time that he was local rector. 

New Bern was the largest town of North Carolina in 
1815, with a population of approximately 3,600 ; a sub- 
stantial increase from the 2,467 inhabitants, including 
1,298 slaves, reported in 1810. 3 

Bishop George W. Freeman of Arkansas was another 
Episcopal clergyman who served here as a professor in 
the New Bern Academy. For a time he was rector of 
Christ Church, Raleigh. Both he and his brother, the 
Rev. Frederick Freeman, also an Episcopal minister, were 
associated in the local school about 1816 with another 
brother, the Rev. Jonathan Otis Freeman, M. D., principal 
of the Academy, a Presbyterian minister already men- 
tioned as having conducted the funeral for the Rev. 
Charles Pettigrew. 4 

Daniel Drew, an English Episcopalian, opened a select 
school here for instruction in the classics. He was a 
Latin, Greek and Hebrew scholar. Though only a lay- 
man, he is said to have been "quite a master in speculative 
theology." 5 



i Most of the facts about Messrs. Strebeck and Phillips in this 
chapter are from Cheshire, Sketches, pp. 259, 275-76. 

2 Ibid., 249. 

3 United States Census. Vass, 97. 

4 Cheshire, op. eit., 256. Vass, op. cit., 105. 

5 Miller, Stephen F., "Recollections of New Bern Fifty Years Ago" 
published in Our Living and Our Dead, official organ of the North 
Carolina Branch of the Southern Historical Society, Vol. I, p. 339. 



XXXIII 

THE REV. JEHU CURTIS CLAY 

AND 

ORGANIZATION OF DIOCESE 

About the first of January, 1817, the Rev. Jehu Curtis 
Clay, also a teacher as well as a priest, followed Mr. 
Strebeck here, taking over educational and pastoral duties 
for about a year. During his rectorship the Diocese of 
North Carolina was organized at New Bern. 

At that time there were only three Episcopal ministers 
in this region. The Rev. Adam Empie had succeeded Dr. 
Hailing as rector of St. James, Wilmington, in 1811, but 
in 1814 returned to the North. He was followed at St. 
James by the Rev. Bethel Judd. In November, 1816, he 
came back to the pulpit at Wilmington, succeeding Mr. 
Judd, who remained temporarily in that city. 1 

Three years previously Mr. Empie had endeavored to 
communicate with clergymen in the State to get them to 
perfect an organization. Upon his return to North Caro- 
lina, he renewed his efforts. Due to his earnest efforts, 
with the material aid of Mr. Judd and Mr. Clay, the 
organizing convention of the diocese was held at Christ 
Church here on April 24, 1817. 2 

All three ministers attended the convention. Judd, who 
on May 1 became rector of St. John's Church, which he 
had organized that year at Fayetteville, was elected 
president. Empie was named secretary. Clay conducted 
divine service ; Judd preached the forenoon sermon. 

Six lay delegates were present : John Stanly and John 
Spence West, from Christ Church; John Rutherford 
London and Marsden Campbell, St. James ; John Winslow, 
St. John's; and Josiah Collins, Jr., St. Paul's Church, 
Edenton. 

Judd, Empie, Clay, Stanly and London were named on 
a Constitutional Committee to present a Constitution. 
The General Constitution of the Protestant Episcopal 



122 CROWN OF LIFE 

Church of the United States was adopted. Rectors were 
requested to take annual offerings for the support of 
missionary work in the State. It was decided to hold 
annual conventions on the second Thursday after Easter. 
Later, when the organization seemed sufficiently strong, 
it was planned to elect a diocesan bishop. 

Meanwhile, the three rectors and less than 200 laymen 
in the section were placed under the care of Bishop 
Richard Channing Moore, of Virginia, who was asked to 
visit the State and perform Episcopal offices at the dif- 
ferent parishes. 

As diocesan leaders for the year, Judd was elected 
president; Empie, secretary; and Judd, Clay and Empie, 
West, Winslow, Campbell and John B. Blount of Edenton 
as members of the Standing Committee. 

Moses Jarvis of New Bern and Mr. Judd were named 
delegates to the next General Convention. Fayetteville 
was chosen for the next State Convention, and Mr. Clay 
was appointed to draft canons for consideration at that 
gathering. 

But, before the time for the convention Mr. Clay had 
been succeeded as the local rector by the Rev. Richard S. 
Mason. A report in the official diocesan record reads : 

"About the first of January, 1817, the Rev. Mr. Clay 
took charge at New Bern ; and by his assiduity and talents 
gave great hopes of extensive usefulness — but circum- 
stances inducing his removal to the diocese of Maryland 
cast a gloom for a time over the prospects, and damped 
the zeal of the friends of Zion. A seasonable relief, how- 
ever, is anticipated for the talents and zealous efforts of 
the Rev. Mr. Mason, who has recently commenced his 
labors in that congregation, with every prospect of 
success." 3 

The Rev. Mr. Empie is well known in church history 
outside this State. After leaving Wilmington in the 
Spring of 1814, following his first rectorate of three years 
there, he became the first chaplain at the United States 
Military Academy at West Point, N. Y., which had just 
previously been reorganized after the opening of the War 



THE REV. JEHU CURTIS CLAY 123 

of 1812. At Wilmington he is said to have increased his 
congregation from 21 to 102 communicants. 

Returning South, he again served as rector of St. James 
Church from 1816 to 1829. For some time he was rector 
of historic Bruton Parish and president of William and 
Mary College at Williamsburg, Va. 

Bishop Cheshire commented upon these beginnings of 
diocesan organization : "The work of the first Convention 
and the first Bishop of North Carolina was simply to 
gather together and to organize the remains of the old 
Colonial Church in the several localities where it had been 
most successfully established . . . We today are the 
ecclesiastical and spiritual representatives in fact, and 
not merely in theory, of the Church which our Anglo- 
Saxon fathers set up here to sanctify the new Continent 
which they were subduing and civilizing." 4 



i Cheshire, Sketches, pp. 261, 267-68. 

2 This report of the diocesan organization meeting is taken from 
the official minutes contained in the Diocesan Journal of 1817 in the 
business office of the present diocesan organization at Wilmington, 
N. C. 

3 Excerpt from the 1818 Diocesan Journal. 

4 Cheshire, op. cit., 277. 



XXXIV 

THE REV. RICHARD SHARPE MASON 

Dr. Mason served here as rector from the Spring of 
1818 until 1828, his ten years ranking fourth in length 
of service. He was one of the outstanding Episcopal 
ministers in North Carolina, serving long and ably at 
Raleigh for many years during the last part of his life. 

Soon after his arrival in New Bern he represented 
Christ Church at the second diocesan convention, which 
was held April 2, 1818, at Fayetteville. Lay delegates 
included John W. Guion, of New Bern. Probably due to 
the recent change in rectors, no report or collection for 
the local parish is given in the official minutes of the 
meeting. 

Mr. Judd was re-elected president, and Mr. Empie was 
renamed secretary. By that time Edenton had a rector, 
the Rev. John Avery, who also attended the gathering, as 
did the Rev. John Phillips, formerly of New Bern, then of 
Virginia, who in that year returned to North Carolina as 
a mission worker around Tarboro, Warrenton and Wash- 
ington. Admitted into the union was St. Jude's Church, 
reported organized in Orange County. 

The first record on the oldest extant parish registers 
among the local church documents is dated May 6, 1818, 
and is in the handwriting of Dr. Mason. It records the 
baptism of two small Negro girls, as follows: 

"May 6 — At the house of William Judd — Julia, a black 
female child aged about 6 years, the property of said Wm. 
Judd ; sponsors William Judd, his wife, Mehitable Judd. 
Also at the same time and place Laura, a black infant 
daughter of Pakey, a black man and property of Wm. 
Judd, and Sukey, a free black woman." 

A notation in the front of this oldest register written 
by the Rev. J. R. Goodman, next local rector, states that 
previous parish records were destroyed in a fire which in 
1818 burned the house of Lucas Benners, then secretary 
of the vestry. It is chiefly for this reason that it is so 



THE REV. RICHARD SHARPE MASON 125 

difficult and at times impossible to trace the early history 
of the church in detail. From that year on the records 
are fairly complete. However, the first vestry book 
extant goes back only to 1830. 

Born on the Island of Barbados in the West Indies 
December 29, 1795, Mason was only 22 years old when he 
came to New Bern. He had been graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1811, at the early age of 
fifteen. On September 21, 1817, he had been ordained 
deacon by Bishop White in St. Peter's Church, Phila- 
delphia ; and it was not until April 30, 1820, after he had 
been at Christ Church for two years, that he was ordained 
priest by Bishop Moore in St. Paul's Church, Edenton. 

That he was greatly beloved here is apparent from the 
fact that numerous babies he baptized were named for 
him. He kept careful, neat records of all his official acts 
in the parish. Among the entries are reports of many 
baptisms of colored folk, and in most instances their 
white owners acted as their sponsors. 

An entry in Dr. Mason's register, dated February 4, 
1819, shows that at the house of William Gaston was 
baptized Catherine Jane Gaston, daughter of William and 
Eliza Ann Worthington Gaston, born January 21 of that 
year. Sponsors were Mrs. Gaston, Mr. Worthington and 
Mrs. Taylor. 

The mother, formerly of Georgetown, who was Gaston's 
third wife, died later in the year, leaving two infant 
daughters. For the remaining quarter of a century of his 
life the statesman was a widower. 2 Evidently he did not 
object to the Episcopal baptism of his child at his home, 
although he was a loyal Catholic and Catholic services 
were often held in his home, 3 now known as the Coor- 
Gaston-Henderson house, on Craven and New Streets, 
which he purchased April 17, 1818, 4 and where he resided 
locally until his death in 1844. 

In April, 1819, New Bern was visited by President 
Monroe. He is reported to have worshipped in Christ 
Church. St. John's Masonic lodge sent him an address of 
welcome, signed by Lucas Jacob Benners, then Worshipful 
Master. The President's reply, dated at New Bern April 



126 CROWN OF LIFE 

12, read in part, as still recorded in original Masonic 
record books : 

"Deriving as we do, all the blessings which a kind 
Providence has bestowed on us, from our republican insti- 
tutions, we should forfeit all claims to the continuance 
of the Divine favor, if we did not zealously cherish, and 
steadily adhere to these institutions. 

"Having a common interest, and bound together as the 
American people are, by all the ties which can cement 
their union, I see with great satisfaction the increasing 
harmony, in the public opinion, proceeding from those 
great causes, which you have noticed, and which it is so 
consistent with the benevolent principles of your society 
to cherish." 5 

Dr. Mason and Moses Jarvis represented the local 
church April 22 at the third diocesan convention in 
Wilmington. On the second day Mason preached the con- 
vention sermon. For this parish he reported nine bap- 
tisms, four marriages, eight funerals, and 32 communi- 
cants, with 80 subscribed to the missionary fund. 6 

An idea of the improving church conditions in this 
area at that period may be obtained from the address of 
Bishop Moore to the Virginia convention of 1821, regard- 
ing the North Carolina diocesan convention which he had 
attended the previous year at Edenton: 

"The church of that Diocese holds up to your view the 
most encouraging prospects. In Edenton, at which place 
the Convention was convened, our sittings were attended 
by great numbers of people, some of whom had come 
from a distance of near fifty miles to witness our pro- 
ceeding and attend upon our ministry. In that place I 
ordained two deacons, and admitted one gentleman to the 
priesthood. In the Diocese so late as the year 1817 there 
was not a single clergyman: they are now blessed with 
the labors of seven faithful men; and in the course of 
another year, several candidates, who are now preparing 
for Holy Orders, will be admitted to the Ministry of the 
Word." 7 

In the year 1822 there were nine Episcopal ministers 
reported for this diocese. 8 



THE REV. RICHARD SHARPE MASON 127 

Although comparatively young while here, Dr. Mason 
is said to have been quite absent-minded. Once in plant- 
ing vegetables in his garden, he is reported to have put 
the peas in his pocket and his spectacles in the ground. 9 

As a devout minister, he did his best to win religious 
converts. Jarvis B. Buxton gave up his business and 
became rector at Fayetteville. 10 An instance where he 
failed is related in Stephen Miller's Recollections. Among 
the members of Christ Church was Mrs. Narcissa Hatch 
Howard, a pious Christian. Her husband, Josiah Howard, 
of New Bern and Jones County, was averse to religion. 
The wife requested Dr. Mason to attend Howard's bedside 
while the latter was ill. But, despite every effort, Miller 
reports, the rector could not make any headway in con- 
verting Howard. 11 

At the 1826 diocesan convention Dr. Mason reported 
that he was giving instruction in the catechism and 
lectures on the Scriptures to colored residents of New 
Bern and that every Thursday night he was delivering 
lectures at the church on the Acts of the Apostles. 12 The 
next year he deplored a great decline in zeal and piety at 
New Bern. 13 

Perhaps it was this decline that led to his decision to 
leave this parish. His transfer to the Diocese of Penn- 
sylvania was reported in 1828, at the same time that the 
Rev. Francis L. Hawks was reported as having trans- 
ferred to Connecticut. John H. Bryan represented Christ 
Church at that year's convention. 14 

Dr. Mason became rector of St. Matthews Church, 
Geneva, N. Y., in 1828 ; and the next year began to act as 
president of Geneva College. In 1835 he became president 
of Newark College in Delaware. During 1840 he started 
his long service as rector of Christ Church, Raleigh, a post 
he held as a capable and beloved leader until his death 
there February 21, 1874. 15 

That he made an excellent record in New Bern and left 
many friends and admirers here is indicated by the fact 
that the vestry let him take with him from here the 
Prayer Book that had been presented to this parish by 
King George II. He always intended to return it at his 



128 CROWN OF LIFE 

death, as shown by a note in his own writing pasted in 
the volume. It was returned to Christ Church after his 
death by his widow, Mrs. Mary Bryan Mason. 

Resolutions of respect to his memory, in the writing 
of the late Frederick C. Roberts, are still spread upon 
local vestry minutes, as passed after Dr. Mason's death. 
They call attention to the fact that he had served here as 
rector fifty years before and the "good influence then 
exerted by him is still felt among us," and "we recognize 
in him one of the best, purest and ablest divines who has 
ever adorned the ministry of our church." 16 



i Diocesan Journal, 1818. 

2 Connor, op. cit., p. 47. 

3 Irwin, the Rev. M. A., "History of St. Paul's Catholic Church, 
New Bern," published in Neiv Bern Sun-Journal, Saturday, May 7, 
1938. 

4 Craven County Record of Deeds, Book 40; pp. 190-91. 

5 St. John's Masonic Lodge minutes, April, 1819. 

6 Diocesan Journal, 1819. 

"' Virginia Diocesan Journal, 1821. 

8 North Carolina Diocesan Journal, 1822. 

9 Roberts, Dita, A Short Historical Sketch of Christ Church 
Parish, p. 14. 

io Miller, op. cit., 243. 

ii Ibid., 464. 

12 Diocesan Journal, 1826. (Hereafter the North Carolina Diocesan 
Journals will be cited as D. J.). 

is ibid., 1827. 

14 Ibid., 1828. 

is Data about Dr. Mason came from Diocesan Journals, parish 
registers, church histories and articles. Miller, op. cit., 339. 

is Vestry Minutes, Christ Church Parish, 1874. (Hereafter the 
Vestry Minutes will be cited as V. M.) 




Second Local Episcopal Church — 1824 



XXXV 

OTHER LOCAL DENOMINATIONS 

By 1818 the Methodists and Baptists had erected 
churches in New Bern, and Presbyterians were planning 
for a handsome edifice. It was natural for Episcopalians 
to press their efforts towards completion of long-pending 
arrangements for a new church. 

Methodists organized here in 1802, and held great camp 
meetings in 1803. They were next to the Episcopalians 
in constructing a house of worship. Their present 
structure, Centenary Methodist Church, dedicated 
October 22, 1905, is their third; being preceded by old 
Andrew Chapel on Hancock Street and their second 
church on New Street. 

Between 1785 and 1807 Bishops Asbury and Whitecoat 
of their denomination preached here at different times. 
It is reported that on his last visit Bishop Asbury was so 
feeble that he had to sit while he delivered his sermon in 
Andrew Chapel. Previously he had held services at the 
Episcopal Church. 1 

The Rev. Lorenzo Dow preached in the Methodist 
Chapel, and announced surprisingly that he would return 
for another service there at noon exactly two years from 
then. Many local bets were made as to whether he would 
keep this strange engagement. 

At the appointed time a huge assembly gathered in the 
chapel, but there was no sign of Dow. Suddenly, just as 
the hour struck, he appeared in the pulpit. The congre- 
gation was thrown into a frenzy of excitement, as he 
announced his text: "Be not afraid; it is I." He had 
arrived in town the night before, in disguise, and had kept 
hidden until noon. 2 

The Rev. Amos C. Treadway, who was pastor of the 
Methodist Chapel here in 1821, declared in one of his 
sermons: "I had rather be a poor Methodist preacher, 
traveling over the barren hills of Carolina, receiving my 
one hundred dollars a year, than to be a Prince seated on 



130 CROWN OF LIFE 

his throne." However, at the next Conference he with- 
drew from the denomination and soon became an Epis- 
copal minister. 3 

Edward Wadsworth, native of Craven County and 
president of LaGrange College in Alabama, is among 
others who preached at the chapel. Melvell B. Cox is 
reported to have given himself to missions towards the 
close of the 1831 Conference there. After a year as a 
missionary to Africa he died, with the injunction, "let a 
thousand missionaries fall rather than give up Africa." 4 

A unique monument to a colored Methodist minister 
is found today in Greenwood Negro cemetery here. Its 
inscription tells his story: 

"Here lie the remains of John Cook, the colored 
preacher. He was a native of Africa and was brought to 
this country in the year 1805. He was converted and 
joined the Methodist church at this place in 1818 and soon 
after became a preacher of the Gospel. His deep and 
consistent piety secured unbounded confidence in his 
Christian character. Having spent his life in the service 
of God he died in holy triumph on the 24th of November, 
1856. In the 65th year of his age. This monument was 
erected to his memory by his brethren and friends, white 
and colored, in token of their respect and Christian 
affection. 

"Soldier of Christ, well done; 

Praise be thy new employ, 

And while eternal ages run 

Rest in thy Saviour's joy." 

Presbyterians organized here January 7, 1817, under 
the leadership of John Witherspoon, grandson of a Signer 
of the Declaration of Independence. 5 Mrs. Eunice 
Edwards Pollock Hunt, a charter member, was daughter 
of the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, 6 famous New England 
minister and president of Princeton College, and sister of 
the mother of Vice President Aaron Burr. This is the 
oldest Presbyterian organization and their church is the 
oldest church structure of their denomination in any 
town of Eastern North Carolina. 



OTHER LOCAL DENOMINATIONS 131 

Their church, still considered an architectural gem, was 
dedicated January 6, 1822. 7 It is said to have been built 
from a design made for earlier churches by Sir Christo- 
pher Wren, noted English architect, responsible for the 
beauty of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. 

Pastors of the church have had important careers. The 
Rev. John Nicholson Campbell, supply minister, left here 
in 1820 to become Chaplain of Congress. 8 The Rev. 
Drury Lacy, here 1834-36, served as president of Davidson 
College and he and his wife opened a school in Raleigh 
which became Peace College. 9 His son, Dr. Ben R. Lacy, 
Sr., was long State Treasurer; and a grandson, Dr. Ben 
Lacy, Jr., is now president of Union Seminary. 

Dr. Charles G. Vardell, pastor here from 1891 to 1896, 
was first president and is now president emeritus of Flora 
Macdonald College at Red Springs. His son, Dr. Charles 
Vardell, Jr., directs the music department at Salem 
College. The Rev. Dr. Lachlan C. Vass, local pastor, now 
deceased, still ranks as one of the chief historians of this 
town. 

Two sons of this local church have enlisted in foreign 
mission fields — Lachlan Vass, Jr., who went to Africa, 
and Dr. William Hollister, of this city, who served for 
some years as a medical missionary to Korea. 

Baptists 10 organized here May 11, 1809, and by 1812 
had finished a "meeting-house" on Johnson Street near 
the cemetery entrance, the present site of St. Cyprian's 
colored Episcopal Church. This was New Bern's third 
denomination to erect a house of worship. The second 
Baptist church here, their present edifice, was dedicated 
July 2, 1848. Probably patterned after the same drawing, 
it bears a close similarity to the Chapel of the Cross, an 
Episcopal church at Chapel Hill, erected about the same 
time, 1843-1848. 

Local Baptist pastors have been prominent in church 
and educational history. Meredith College and Furman 
University took their names from former New Bern 
pastors, the Rev. Thomas Meredith and the Rev. Richard 
Furman, Jr. The "Biblical Recorder," State Baptist 
publication, was started here January 5, 1835, by 



132 CROWN OF LIFE 

Meredith ; another local pastor, the Rev. J. M. C. Breaker, 
founded "The Confederate Baptist," at Columbia, S. C. 

Wake Forest College was the idea of a New Bern 
pastor, the Rev. William Hooper, who had turned to the 
Baptist ministry from the Episcopal pulpit. A native of 
Wilmington, he was a grandson of William Hooper, who 
signed the Declaration of Independence for North Caro- 
lina. The Baptist leader became second president of 
Wake Forest; and later served as president of Chowan 
Female Institute, 1855-62; following New Bern service, 
1852-54. 

Samuel Wait, first president of Wake Forest College, 
became prominent in North Carolina because of an acci- 
dent that forced him to come to New Bern. He also 
served as local pastor. For five years he was president of 
Oxford Female Seminary. 

Other pastors had outstanding educational records: 
the building at Chowan College was due to Martin R. 
Forey, president; Joseph Andrews Warne, first principal 
of Furman Academy ; Josiah J. Finch, principal at Sedge- 
wick Female Seminary; Theodore Whitefield, principal of 
a Mississippi school for the blind ; and Abraham David 
Cohen, resident superintendent of Oxford Orphanage. 

Established in 1821, the local Catholic parish is the 
oldest in North Carolina. Originally comprising almost 
all Eastern Carolina, it long drew members and visitors 
from as far west as Greensboro. 

St. Paul's Catholic Church edifice, still in use, was 
erected 1840-41, now ranking as the oldest of its denomi- 
nation in the State. Previous services were held at 
William Gaston's home. Cardinal Gibbons often visited 
here while Bishop of the North Carolina vicariate, 1868- 
72. Father Harry Northrop, local priest, became Bishop 
of Charleston; and another priest, Father Thomas F. 
Price, founded the Catholic Orphanage at Raleigh and the 
American Foreign Missionary Society at Mary Knoll, 
N. Y. 11 

During May, 1848, a Union Baptist minister, Peter 
Howell, came to New Bern. A few followers were formed 
October 7 into an O'Kellyan Christian Church, with 29 



OTHER LOCAL DENOMINATIONS 133 

members, including two prominent laymen, Messrs. Bragg 
and Ellixon. The group did not have continuous leader- 
ship, and became disorganized during the War Between 
the States. It was not until about 1886 that Disciples of 
Christ permanently organized here. Their first church, 
formerly standing on Hancock Street, was completed and 
dedicated December 1, 1889, with 65 charter members. 
Their present handsome edifice, Broad Street Christian 
Church, was dedicated April 18, 1926. 12 A charter 
member, Miss Etta Nunn, has long served the denomi- 
nation in Auxiliary work and Mexican mission fields. 

Free Will Baptists began a church here a century ago 
which joined the historic old Bethel Conference, the back- 
ground for many pioneer Disciples of Christ in North 
Carolina. This church had 46 members in 1841, when the 
first Christian organizations were begun in the State. 
The group failed to go over to the Disciples of Christ. It 
has had a long and honorable record here. 

The Tabernacle Baptist Church was organized in 1895. 
The cornerstone of the First Church of Christ, Scientist, 
was laid December 31, 1903, the first of that faith to be 
built and dedicated in North Carolina. Financial contri- 
bution was made by Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy, discoverer 
of Christian Science. The Jewish synagogue, Chester 
B'Nai Sholem, was built in 1908. The Riverside Methodist 
Church was organized in 1915 from a Sunday School that 
had been opened in that part of town the year before. 
Their church building was erected in 1920. 

But, in 1818, there were only three churches and three 
pastors in New Bern. A writer reported in that year : 

"There are three houses of public worship in New Bern, 
and at present three congregations supplied with pastors. 
The Episcopalians, who are a numerous and respectable 
body, have a decent brick church, at present supplied with 
a clergyman. 

"The Methodists, the most numerous society of 
Christians in the place, have a very large and convenient 
chapel, and are supplied with a regular succession of able 
and evangelical preachers. The Baptists have a meeting- 
house, at present out of repair. They have no regular 



134 CROWN OF LIFE . 

preacher. Besides these, a Presbyterian congregation 
meets at the Academy for public worship." 13 

Stephen Chester, a Presbyterian, wrote a humorous 
poem about the churches for a New Year's address 
January 2, 1819. It follows, as printed in the Carolina 
Centinel here: 14 

Episcopal Church 

A Church of George the Second's reign 
Still flings its shadow o'er the plain, 
But mouldering on its ancient lease 
Must soon resign its resting place. 

Methodist Church 

Next comes a house without a name 
To that of church it has no claim, 
And yet the long misshapen pile 
Contains a throng 'twixt either aisle, 
And in the galleries perch'd above, 
To join in prayer and feasts of love ; 
Its various worshipers can tell 
Why they reject a spire or bell. 

Baptist Church 

The Baptist Barn comes next to view 
Where winter winds turn noses blue, 
And shiv'ring devotees retire 
Right glad from worship to the fire; 
But Presbyterians in the lurch, 
Too poor or mean to build a church, 
Are glad to find admittance here 
When its own priests don't interfere. 



i For this and other material on local Methodism, see Vass, op. 
cit., pp. 79-80; Plyler, Dr. M. T., "Early Methodist Ministers in North 
Carolina," published in The North Carolina Christian Advocate, 
November 12, 1936; Hendren, Elizabeth Mayhew, "History of New 
Bern Methodists," published in New Bern Sun-Journal, November 
19, 1936; and other articles published in that same Methodist Con- 
ference Edition of the Sun-Journal, November 19, 1936 . 

2Whitford, op. cit., pp. 273-74. 

3 Miller, op. cit., 340. 

4 Ibid. Local church records. Methodist histories. 

5 Vass, 106. 



OTHER LOCAL DENOMINATIONS 135 

eibid., 134. 
7 Ibid., 124. 
&IMd., 108. 
9 Ibid., 155. 

io Chief source of this Baptist summary was an address, "A Cen- 
tury of Service," by the Rev. Dr. Hight C. Moore, editorial secretary 
of the Baptist Sunday School Board at Nashville and former local 
pastor, during the program here commemorating the 125th anni- 
versary of the First Baptist Church organization here on November 
13, 1934, as a feature of the 104th annual session of the North 
Carolina Baptist State Convention. A manuscript copy of the 
address is in the possession of the author of this history. 

ii Irwin, op. cit. 

12 Most of the information about the local Disciples was obtained 
from articles written by C. C. Ware, of Wilson, corresponding secre- 
tary of the North Carolina Christian Missionary Convention, in The 
North Carolina Christian, and from an article on the history of the 
Broad Street Christian Church by John R. Taylor, published in The 
New Bern Times, December 15, 1939. 

i3Vass, 98. 

uibid., 113. Whitford, 230-31. 



XXXVI 

SECOND EPISCOPAL CHURCH BUILDING 

During Dr. Mason's rectorate the second Episcopal 
church was erected here. The same location was used, 
but instead of having the building at the corner of the lot 
the larger structure was placed to the northeast, the 
present site. 

As early as January 2, 1778, the southwest corner of 
the church lot had been designated as the true beginning 
for the plan of the town. 1 The "Lady Blessington" 
cannon taken from the British Ship-of-War Lady 
Blessington after a sharp engagement during the Revo- 
lution by an armed privateer owned by John Wright 
Stanly, New Bern patriot and member of Christ Church, 
was planted on that corner and was used in laying out 
the city. 2 

In 1789, as previously mentioned, a State bill was 
passed 3 permitting nine Episcopalians named as church 
wardens to accept donations for erecting a new and 
larger church than their small Colonial structure which 
is said to have resembled on the interior the Episcopal 
church still standing at Georgetown, S. C, which was also 
erected in 1750. 4 But it took a long time to raise sufficient 
funds. 

A definite proposal for construction of the church was 
drafted in 1820. 5 Undoubtedly the local building boom 
gave impetus to the movement. On a special committee 
for the purpose were appointed M. C. Stephens, J. R. 
Donnell, Moses Jarvis, John P. Daves and J. F. Burgwyn. 

Decision was reached to have the edifice face the South. 
It was to be a brick structure, 70 feet long and 55 feet 
wide, with a shingle roof. Besides the main auditorium, 
with two aisles and fifty to sixty pews, there was to be a 
vestry room. High arched windows were planned, and 
side galleries. Special mention was made that there was 
to be an organ. 



SECOND EPISCOPAL CHURCH BUILDING 137 

This new church was consecrated February 1, 1824, 6 by 
the Rt. Rev. John Stark Ravenscroft 7 (1772-1830), born 
in Virginia and bred in England and Scotland, who had 
been elected and installed in 1823 as the first bishop of 
the permanently-organized Diocese of North Carolina. 
Previously Bishop Moore of Virginia had made four 
annual visitations in North Carolina and presided over the 
diocesan conventions, 1819-1822. 8 

Bishop Ravenscroft was a large and commanding 
personality, with a voice "like the roaring of a lion." 9 
His eyebrows were so heavy that he called them his 
"dormer windows." 10 For years, he said, he tried hard 
and finally succeeded in checking his besetting sin of 
profanity. 

While studying law at William and Mary College, Wil- 
liamsburg, Va., he is reported to have been dissipated, 
but was rescued by the lady who later became his wife. 
He wrote of her that what she did not approve she would 
not smile on, yet she never gave him a cross word or an 
ill-natured look in her life. 11 

Despite his early Scotch Presbyterian training, he 
joined the Republican or Reformed Methodists, but after 
study he turned to the Episcopal religion "for that deposit 
of Apostolical succession in which alone verifiable power 
to minister in sacred things was to be found in these 
United States." 12 

Accordingly, he became a candidate for Holy Orders 
and was licensed as a lay reader by Bishop Moore 
February 17, 1816, the next year being ordained April 25 
as a deacon in Monumental Church, Richmond. On May 
6 he became rector at Fredericksburg. In 1818 he was 
ordained a priest. 

When named Bishop of North Carolina, he was the 
tenth Episcopal Bishop for America. His diocese was 
weak and congregations were small, but he was a fearless 
leader, wise in counsel and strong in action, and he 
traveled extensively to build up the church in the State. 

For his first year there were reported 480 communi- 
cants and seven clergymen, with 200 baptisms. His 
salary was set at $750, to be paid semi-annually, not 



138 CROWN OF LIFE . 

including his pay as rector of Christ Church, Raleigh. 13 
In 1831 after his death there were reported to be fifteen 
ministers and 809 communicants in the diocese, most of 
them in East Carolina. 14 

In his "Recollections of New Bern Fifty Years Ago," 
published 1874-75 in the magazine, Our Living and Our 
Dead, Stephen Miller, former New Bernian, speaks 
briefly of the dedication of the "new brick edifice" by the 
local Episcopalians. 

The choir for the dedication was led by James B. 
Ackroyd, church organist, who was a piano and organ 
teacher and composer, Miller reports, so there must have 
been an organ in the church from the beginning. He 
adds, "Most of the influential families in New Bern were 
represented in the membership and pews of the church." 15 

Among the clergymen present for the service, he says, 
was the Rev. William Hooper, LL.D., professor at the 
University of North Carolina, 1818-1838, and at a later 
period professor at the South Carolina College at 
Columbia. 10 He had entered the Episcopal ministry in 
1818, at the age of 26, but as previously mentioned turned 
to the Baptist denomination. In 1831 he was baptized as 
a Baptist and became an influential Baptist minister. 17 

Showing how prominent churchmen underwrote the 
final costs of the new Episcopal church here, an original 
indenture of the church vestry, dated February 4, 1824, 
is still extant, 18 signed by members of the Building Com- 
mittee: M. C. Stephens, J. Burgwyn, Moses Jarvis and 
John P. Daves: 

"Whereas, the subscribers for building Christ Church 
in general meeting agreed that if the excess of sales of 
pews be less than the debts due to the builders and banks, 
the deficiency should be raised by payments on the notes 
given by subscribers . . . acknowledge receipt of John 
R. Donnell, R. D. and Charles Spaight, $394.50, being the 
amount of their assessment, this sum to be repaid out of 
the proceeds of the sales of pews still unsold, previous to 
any distribution on account of the original subscription." 

A design of the church seats appears on the paper, and 
a notation shows a contract "between John Stanly, Marcus 



SECOND EPISCOPAL CHURCH BUILDING 139 

C. Stephens, John W. Guion, Moses Jarvis, John Merrit, 
John P. Daves and James G. Stanly, vestry, trustees, for 
$639, for two pews, numbers 23 and 25, subject to tax not 
exceeding $17.50 per year for support of pastor." 19 

The paper bears the seal of John M. Roberts as witness 
and the signatures of the vestrymen : J. Stanly, Stephens, 
Guion, Jarvis, Daves, Merrit and J. G. Stanly. 

Within several years the church was in need of repairs, 
as shown in a record dated November 27, 1832: "The 
undersigned having been requested to examine the state 
of Christ Church in this town since the completion of the 
essential repairs thereof do hereby certify that they 
conscientiously believe the repairs to be perfectly secure 
from the most remote danger and that its condition is 
such to warrant the presence of the greatest possible 
assemblage." Signed by B. Flanner, Joshua Mitchell, 
F. Sparrow, Hardy B. Lane and D. Mumford. 20 

Flanner and Mitchell were brick masons ; Mumford was 
a colored brick mason ; Sparrow was a shipbuilder ; Lane 
built the steeple to the old Baptist church and had charge 
of all the carpenter work executed on the new brick 
church. 

One of the "leading men of his line," Bennett Flanner 
is said to have had charge of much of the new Episcopal 
church construction. Stephen F. Miller wrote: "He 
moved on the scaffolding high in the air, apparently with 
as much indifference as if standing on the pavement 
below. I saw him stand erect nearly a half -hour on the 
apex of the steeple, not less than 150 feet high, with no 
other surface of support than the twenty or thirty inches 
diameter on which his feet rested." 21 

Walls of the edifice had to be repaired again in 1833. 
The roof spread several inches on the huge structure, 
forcing out the side walls and rendering the building 
dangerous. 22 The old roof was taken off, to restore the 
walls to their proper position. A new roof of a different 
material was substituted, with cypress shingles. This is 
said to have been a cause of the heavy fire loss when the 
church was burned in 1871. 



140 CROWN OF LIFE . 

iSt. Rec, XIII, 357; XXIV, 246. 

2 Vass, p. 87. 

3 St. Rec, XXV, 35-36. Supra, pp. 86, 100 et seq. 

4 Whitford, p. 35. 

5 V. M., 1820. 

6 V. M., 1824, and original certificate of consecration. 

"' This brief sketch of Bishop Ravenscroft came from various 
sources, but particularly the article, "The First Three Bishops — 
Ravenscroft, Ives and Atkinson," written by the Rt. Rev. Alfred A. 
Watson, D. D., and published in Cheshire's Sketches, pp. 279-287, 
et. passim. 

8 Cheshire, Sketches, 278. 

9 Watson, article mentioned, p. 281. 
io Ibid. 

ii Ibid. 

12 Ibid., p. 285. 

13 Marshall, the Rev. Matthias M., D. D., "The Church in North 
Carolina: Its Present Condition and Prospects," published in 
Cheshire's Sketches, see p. 342. 

14 Ibid. 

is Op. cit., pp. 339, 456. 
is Ibid., 339. 

17 Moore, op. cit. Whitford, op. cit., p. 262. 

18 John D. Whitford Collection, North Carolina Historical Commis- 
sion Archives, Raleigh. 

io A design of the church pews also appears on the original deed 
of the Vestry to J. R. Donnell, R. D. Spaight and Charles Spaight, 
for Pews No. 23 and 25, dated November, 1825, now in the museum 
of the New Bern Public Library. According to this deed, the three 
men subscribed $1,000 and were assessed $394.50, but were credited 
with $639 for the pews. 

20 Whitford, op. cit., 270-1. Record in Whitford Collection, N. C. 
Historical Commission, Raleigh. 

21 Miller, op. cit., 348. 

22 Whitford, 270. 



XXXVII 

THE REV. JOHN R. GOODMAN 

Ordained priest at St. Paul's Church, Edenton, on April 
16, 1828, after arriving in North Carolina from Pennsyl- 
vania, the Rev. John R. Goodman became rector of Christ 
Church in December of that year. 1 

With great enthusiasm he set to work to build up his 
congregation and the loyalty of its members. A Sunday 
School was established, and a library started. Women 
of the church formed an "Industrious Society." New light 
fixtures were installed in the new church ; and a bell, "of 
large size," was obtained. 

By 1830 Mr. Goodman could report to the diocese that 
there was an "increase in the religious sensibility" of 
his congregation. He said that many prayer books and 
religious tracts had been distributed. Lay delegates to 
the convention that year were Moses Jarvis, James W. 
Bryan, Charles G. Spaight and William N. Hawks. 2 

An old minute book of the vestry, recently found here 
by C. H. Stith and turned over to Senior Warden E. K. 
Bishop for the church archives, has a first entry dated 
May 7, 1830. This is the oldest local vestry book still 
extant, so far as is known. Mr. Stith is the great- 
grandson of Moses Jarvis. 

Still further "increase of seriousness and religious 
sensibility" at New Bern was reported by Mr. Goodman in 
1832. a During 1829 there had been 75 members listed on 
the church rolls, six of the former 81 having been marked 
off as dying during the year; while by 1832 the number 
had grown to 106, including eleven Negroes. 4 

That Summer the rector was granted a leave of absence 
from the middle of August to the end of October, to 
attend the General Convention in the North. The next 
February his salary was reported to be inadequate for his 
support, and he was allowed for one year all revenue from 
the church pews less the expense of collections. 5 



142 CROWN OF LIFE 

Apparently the "religious sensibility" of his flock did 
not keep on the upward march. For, in 1833, he reported 
that many of the members had "too much of a heedless 
unconcern for the dying behest of their Lord." However, 
he did report the establishment of a missionary society 
and the formation of a colored congregation, likely the 
first of each for the local church. 6 

The records by Mr. Goodman in his parish registers 
are unusually neat and explicit. He used Roman 
numerals. He kept a careful index, and added many 
explanatory notes, as about the destruction of the first 
church records by fire. 7 

By a marriage ceremony entry, he noted that the man 
was found later to be from Columbia, S. C, where he 
passed under another name, having a wife and family 
there. Goodman added in his own defense, "As he was 
a stranger in this place, I made every enquiry, and was 
repeatedly assured by the person who brought the license 
that no legal impediment existed." 8 

From an entry October 31, 1833, it is learned that the 
church service was conducted at the Academy building 
while the church was undergoing repairs. 9 

Some of the pews in those days were decorated or lined. 
A notation of February 10, 1834, was to the effect that 
those pewholders "disposed to line and trim their Pews, 
on the sides and back thereof, be requested to use a red 
colour for the same, in order to conform to the hangings 
and trimmings of the pulpit and desk." 

Before Mr. Goodman resigned the local rectorate in 
1834, the congregation lost a prominent layman and 
member of the vestry, John Stanly. On December 15, 
1829, and probably on other occasions, the minister gave 
communion to the layman in his "sick chamber" at the 
Stanly home here, he reported in the local register. 

The tombstone near the front entrance of Cedar Grove 
cemetery bears this inscription, written by William 
Gaston, who also wrote the memorial obituary of the 
statesman : 

"Sacred to the memory of John Stanly, eldest son of 
John Wright Stanly and Ann, his wife, who was born at 



THE REV. JOHN R. GOODMAN 143 

New Bern, N. C, on the ninth day of April in the year of 
our Lord 1774 and died on the second day of August in 
the year 1833. 

"Few persons in any community have occupied a more 
prominent station, few have exercised a more powerful 
influence than this distinguished individual for many 
years held and exerted in our Town and throughout our 
State. Long let the affectionate and grateful remem- 
brance live of his genius, his learning, his courtesy, his 
eloquence, his virtues, his personal charities and his public 
services. — Gaston." 



1 D. J., 1828-29. 

2 Ibid., 1830. 

3 Ibid., 1832. 

4 First Parish Register. 

5 V. M., 1832-33. 

6 D. J., 1833. 

7 Supra, p. 124. 

8 Parish Register. 

9 V. M., 1833. 



XXXVIII 

THE REV. JOHN BURKE 

The Rev. John Burke became rector of Christ Church 
in 1835, and served until 1837. 

At first he was only temporarily called, at $50 per 
month, and he accepted on that basis, until the vestry 
could hear definitely from a call extended to Dr. Mason, 
then of Geneva, N. Y., urging him to return to the local 
church, at a salary of $800 a year. 1 

Dr. Mason declined the local invitation, and in July, 
1835, Mr. Burke was named permanent rector, according 
to a note in the parish records made by Charles Shepard, 
secretary of the vestry. Burke expressed thanks to 
"those gentlemen who contributed to defray his travel 
expenses" to New Bern. The vestry voted $50 to William 
Hawks, who had substituted in the pulpit while there was 
no rector. 

In June of 1835 the vestry had voted to engage a rector 
for only one year at a time, the appointment to cease at 
the termination of that period unless the rector was noti- 
fied three months before expiration of the term that 
continuation of his services was desired. This action, 
however, was rescinded in 1838. 

Mr. Burke was re-elected rector in July, 1836, at a 
salary of $700 a year. He had asked an increase of pay, 
but the vestry declined, saying they were unable to raise 
the amount at that time. 2 

His first convention report explained that the deficit for 
the Bishop's salary from his parish was due to the fact 
that collections had been irregular since his predecessor 
had left New Bern. 3 In 1837 he reported that he was in- 
structing youths in the catechism, and was doing as much 
as he could to improve the Sunday School. 4 

Started here on July 4, 1837, was the Female Benevo- 
lent Society, now the New Bern Benevolent Society, the 
oldest charitable organization in North Carolina still in 
existence and probably the second oldest in the United 



THE REV. JOHN BURKE 145 

States. 5 An earlier Female Charitable Society, started 
here in 1812, had dissolved after several years. 6 

The Benevolent Society was sponsored by a native New 
Bernian who had been visiting the relatives of her 
Northern husband. The first president was Miss Janet 
Taylor, afterwards married to William Hollister. The 
Rev. Mr. Burke likely assisted with the organization. 

Its purpose was "to assist temporarily, during sickness, 
stress of weather, or other unavoidable casualty such 
'respectable females' as are ordinarily in the habit of sup- 
porting themselves by their own industry." In 1843 it 
was incorporated. During 1851 it was left $1,000 by 
Michael Lente, this still being a trust fund, interest used 
for relief work. 

Succeeding the late Bishop Ravenscroft, the Rev. Levi 
Silliman Ives, of Connecticut, had become the second 
Bishop of North Carolina in 183 1. 7 He was popular during 
his 22-year service, diocesan conventions were like family 
reunions, and the church flourished under his untiring and 
zealous leadership. When he started his work, he found 
15 clergymen and 809 communicants ; when he concluded, 
he left 40 ministers and more than 2,000 members. 

His educational and literary interests were also out- 
standing. St. Mary's school at Raleigh was started, as 
was the mountain mission at Valle Crucis. Five of his 
sermons were published, as "The Apostles' Doctrine and 
Fellowship." 

But, he had trouble with his personal beliefs and con- 
victions. Reared a Presbyterian, he began preparing for 
the ministry when he decided to turn to the Episcopal 
church. He was ordained in 1823. After holding a 
number of important charges in New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, he was rector of St. Luke's Church in New York 
when called to North Carolina. 

About 1848 he showed inclinations towards Romanism. 
For four years he wavered in his faiths, but then made his 
decision. In 1853, after he became a Roman Catholic, he 
resigned as the Episcopal Bishop of North Carolina in a 
letter written from Rome. 



146 CROWN OF LIFE 

i Vestry Minutes, 1835. 
2 Ibid., 1836. 
3D. J., 1836. 

4 Ibid., 1837. 

5 Records of the local organization give full history, and its rank 
in age through the country has been checked with State and 
National authorities. 

6 Johnson, Guion Griffis, Ante-Bellum North Carolina, pp. 163, 
266, 702. 

7 Watson, op. cit., 287-92, et passim. 

8 Marshall, op. cit., 342. 



XXXIX 

THE REV. CAMERON F. McRAE 

After the resignation of the Rev. Mr. Burke, the vestry 
in November, 1837, invited the Rev. William Hawks and 
the Rev. Harvey Stanly, both natives and residents of 
New Bern, to hold services as often as they could at 
Christ Church until a regular rector might be procured. 1 

A resolution was passed by the vestry to the end that 
any vestryman had a right to invite an Episcopal clergy- 
man to preach here without consulting the other members. 

No report of the church was given to the diocese in 
1838, as no rector was here that Spring. During June of 
that year came the Rev. Cameron Farquahar McRae, of 
Elizabeth City, who served from 1838 to 1842. He had 
been recommended in May by Bishop Ives at request of 
the vestry and was to receive $650 the first year, with 
later increase. 2 

A leader of unbounded charity and benevolence, he 
assisted the women of his and other denominations with 
their new Female Benevolent society. Also active at the 
same time was a pioneer Female Education Society of 
New Bern, an auxiliary to assist the Presbyterian Board 
of Education, particularly in aiding "pious indigent young 
men in obtaining an education for the gospel ministry." 3 

That Mr. McRae made an excellent rector is shown in 
the following resolution passed and recorded by the vestry 
April 18, 1840, and addressed to Bishop Ives : 

"McRae having signified a willingness to be admitted 
into the office of Institution of Ministers, we the under- 
signed, the Vestry of Christ Church, New Bern, state 
with great pleasure that Mr. McRae has been nearly two 
years the Rector of said church, that he has given 
universal satisfaction to the whole of his congregation 
and that he is duly qualified and fit to receive the said 
office." 

In the vestry minutes is found a glowing tribute to 
John W. Guion, secretary, who died July 18, 1840. 



148 CROWN OF LIFE ' 

A letter of resignation was written by the minister 
January 17, 1842, who said that after nearly four years 
of relationship "of pleasing character," he was resigning 
for "private and domestic" reasons, expecting to move 
from the section the following June. 4 

On the same day the vestry answered: "We feel 
assured that we express the feelings of every member of 
the congregation and that not one of those we represent 
would on this occasion withhold the expression of their 
sincere and heartfelt conviction that your duties through- 
out the entire period of the charge you now resign have 
been performed with a zeal, ability and faithfulness 
which entitles you to the most unqualified testimonials 
of their approbation and esteem." 5 

The Rev. Moses A. Curtis, of Hillsboro, was called, at 
a salary of $1,000, to succeed Mr. McRae, with the 
approval of Bishop Ives, who came here and met with the 
vestry April 9 ; but Mr. Curtis must have declined, for 
Mr. Hawks was requested to preach temporarily after Mr. 
McRae's departure. 6 Mr. Hawks was then in charge of 
the Griffin Free School, so was residing in New Bern. 



i V. M., 1837. 
2IMd., 1838. 

3 Original record in possession of the Rev. R. E. McClure, pastor 
of the First Presbyterian Church, New Bern. 

4 V. M., 1842. 

5 Ibid. 

6 Ibid. 



XL 

THE REV. FORDYCE M. HUBBARD 

The Rev. Forcyce M. Hubbard, of Cheraw, S. C, 
formerly a New England lawyer, was called to the 
rectorate on May 5, 1842. The town was described to him 
as having 4,000 inhabitants "and the congregation of 
Christ Church consists of (among) the most fashionable 
and intelligent portion of the community." 1 

The description must have appealed to him, for he 
accepted the call and moved shortly to this city, probably 
in June, for his first parish register notation is dated 
June 30. He was allowed a leave to visit in the North 
during 1843. 2 

Mr. Hubbard is said to have made a number of changes 
in the chancel, including the substitution of the altar for 
the communion table. According to Miss Dita Roberts, 
in her excellent booklet, "A Short Historical Sketch of 
Christ Church Parish," he was the first local rector to 
preach in his surplice without changing for an academic 
gown just before the sermon. 3 

While here, he taught Latin at the New Bern Academy. 
From here he went in 1847, to Chapel Hill, where he acted 
as a professor at the University of North Carolina until 
his death. Diocesan records have numerous references to 
his attendance at various conventions after his departure 
from this city. 

That Mr. Hubbard's relations with the vestrymen and 
church members were cordial and friendly here is evident 
from the tone of his letter of resignation dated June 12, 
1847, in which he said that his decision to leave New Bern 
was due to 

"No caprice of dissatisfaction on my part, nor from any 
signs of disaffection in the Parish which it has been my 
happiness to serve but from a deference which is the duty 
of us all to the 'godly judgment' of our revered Diocesan, 
often and earnestly repeated that the interests of the 
Diocese demand my services elsewhere more than here." 4 



150 CROWN OF LIFE 

In similar friendliness the vestrymen accepted the 
resignation a few days later, "with great reluctance and 
regret." They paid tribute to Mr. Hubbard's "ministra- 
tions among us as a faithful teacher and servant of our 
Lord and Master ... a Christian gentleman . . . has 
endeared you to us in no common or ordinary degree." 5 



IV. M., 1842. 

2 Ibid., 1843. 

3 Op. eit., pp. 14-15. 

4 V. M., 1847. 

5 Ibid. 



XLI 

THE REV. WILLIAM N. HAWKS 

Next rector was the Rev. William N. Hawks, who suc- 
ceeded Mr. Hubbard in 1847, at a salary of $750 a year. 
He had frequently held services at Christ Church during 
previous years, and had represented the congregation as 
lay delegate to diocesan convention even prior to that. 1 

In 1832 Hawks was reported in diocesan records as 
serving St. Peter's Church, Washington as rector. 2 During 
1839 he was said to be residing in New Bern again, as 
teacher at the Moses Griffin school, which had been 
established for poor girls, as one of the first institutions 
of the kind, through bequests left by Griffin, eccentric 
local miser, who died in 1816 leaving his property in the 
city for the purpose. The school was incorporated in 
1833, and located on George Street across from the 
northern end of Cedar Grove cemetery. 3 

A colored congregation was started in New Bern by 
Hawks, with 70 persons, diocesan records show for 1845. 4 
The next year the number of members is said to have 
continued to increase. 5 

Two years after that he assumed charge of Christ 
Church. He also directed St. Thomas Mission, and his 
reports mention it frequently. He was a true pastor, 
beloved by his congregation and also by members of other 
denominations. 

The church registers often show baptisms of the 
Griffin school pupils. One entry is dated December 7, 
1847, when five of the girls were baptized by Mr. Hawks. 
The school teacher, Miss Areta Ellis, long active in this 
capacity, acted as their sponsor. 6 

The number of communicants reported to the diocesan 
convention in May, 1848, was 154; including 115 white 
persons and 39 colored. The next year there were 124 
whites and 36 colored, or a total of 160. But the following 
year there was a decrease of four members, to 156 ; con- 
sisting of 122 white members and 34 colored. Two of the 



152 CROWN OF LIFE 

Negroes were reported to have been dropped from the 
rolls for "evil living." The church members gave often to 
charity and missions. 

No action was taken May 25, 1851, by the vestry as 
to the charges being brought against Bishop Ives, then 
reported to be turning to Catholicism. 

Mr. Hawks, like many of the other rectors, had 
financial troubles. He had previously thanked the vestry 
for $50 paid him for his substitute services, saying the 
amount was all right. But in 1853 he complained to the 
vestry that he did not think it fair to receive on his salary 
only the proceeds from rentals of church pews. He also 
complained of his heavy duties, which included teaching. 
In August, 1853, he resigned. 7 

Grandson of John Hawks, supervising architect of 
Tryon's Palace, and brother of the brilliant Francis Lister 
Hawks, D.D., and Bishop Cicero Hawks, this rector was 
a member of one of New Bern's most outstanding families. 
A native New Bernian, he married here Miss Sarah Coart, 
on April 20, 1831, the Rev. Mr. Goodman performing the 
ceremony. s He died at Columbus, Ga., where for some 
time he had served as rector. 9 

This rector was one of the five sons of Francis Hawks, 
only son of John Hawks. The latter was a native of 
Dragby, Lincolnshire, England, rather than being a Moor 
from Malta as often stated erroneously. The father of 
these boys served as United States Collector of Customs 
for the Port of New Bern. 10 He must have been an excel- 
lent father and his wife, Julie A. Stephens Hawks, must 
have made a splendid mother; for their sons turned out 
so well. One became a lawyer, one an educator and the 
other three clergymen, including one who was a bishop 
and another who was elected bishop three times. 

It is related that Francis Hawks used to "tune up" his 
sons every Monday morning with a whipping. If one of 
the boys would demur and plead innocence, the father 
would say, "Oh, you will deserve it anyway before the 
week is half gone." 11 



THE REV. WILLIAM N. HAWKS 153 

Dr. Francis L. Hawks 

Francis Lister Hawks, 12 one of the sons, studied law 
under William Gaston and John Stanly here, after his 
graduation from the University of North Carolina in 
1815, when he was 17 years old. He also studied in a law 
school at Litchfield, Conn. While practicing the pro- 
fession here, he often read sermons at church services in 
the absence of the rector. He is said to have possessed 
"graceful elocution, mellifluous composition, and finely- 
modulated voice." 

When 23 years of age, he went to the General Assembly. 
He also served here as Worshipful Master of St. John's 
Masonic lodge, in which he was an active member and 
officer. As Reporter to the State Supreme Court, he com- 
piled four volumes of North Carolina Court Records. 

In 1827 he was ordained a deacon at New Bern, and 
later became a priest. After serving as assistant to Dr. 
Harry Croswell at New Haven and then as assistant 
minister to Bishop White at St. James, Philadelphia, he 
became rector of St. Stephens, New York City. In a few 
months he transferred to St. Thomas Church, New York, 
where he served ably for 12 years. 

During 1836 he was elected historiographer of the 
Episcopal Church in the United States. In this capacity 
he visited Europe, especially England, to gather material 
for his "Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of the 
United States." He also wrote many secular histories, 
including histories of his native State. He was also a 
co-founder of the New York Review, and aided with the 
work of many historical and literary organizations. 

His appointment as missionary Bishop of the South- 
west had come in 1835, but there was no endowment for 
the office, so he declined. He moved to Holly Springs, 
Miss., in 1843, joining a daughter there, and the next 
year became rector of Christ Church at New Orleans. 
Besides rebuilding that church, which he served for five 
years, he helped establish the University of Louisiana and 
became its first president. 

The fact that he had served as literary master, spiritual 
almoner and temporal head of a classical school at 



154 CROWN OF LIFE 

Flushing, Long Island, which had failed with its fiscal 
affairs in bad shape, was used against him when he was 
nominated as Bishop of Mississippi. His character was 
vindicated and he was elected to the post, but he declined 
to serve. Later he refused to accept appointment as 
Bishop of Rhode Island. 

He became rector of the Church of the Mediation in 
New York, which was soon merged with Calvary Church. 
With the outbreak of the War Between the States, he 
resigned his Northern position, and for more than two 
years served Christ Church in Baltimore. Then he re- 
turned to New York to become associated with the Church 
of the Annunciation. In 1865 friends organized a new 
parish for him, the Church of the Holy Saviour. He died 
September 27, 1866. The funeral was held from Calvary 
Church, and the body was interred at Greenwich, Conn. 
His first wife was a native of that State. 

Long considered one of the most eloquent and renowned 
preachers in America, Dr. Hawks often drew theologians 
all the way from Europe to hear his sermons. Stephen 
Miller wrote of him: "His gifts and labors considered 
together, the ancient town of New Bern has never pro- 
duced another son of such literary accomplishments to 
adorn the age of her Gaston and Stanlys." 13 

Frequently he came to New Bern, and throughout his 
life retained a deep interest in the welfare of his native 
town. He was supposed to deliver the address on the 
occasion of the laying of the foundation stone for the 
entrance of native shell rock at Cedar Grove cemetery, 
but was unable to arrive in time for the program. 

With receipts from his lecture given upon his later 
arrival, a total of $130, the iron gates under the cemetery 
entrance arches were purchased, reports the late Col. 
John D. Whitford in his memoirs of New Bern. Colonel 
Whitford says that the four lines on the marble tablet 
above the main arch were taken from a special hymn 
composed at the time by Dr. Hawks, 14 as follows : 
"Still hallowed be the spot where lies 
Each dear loved one in earth's embrace, 
Our God their treasured dust doth prize, 
Man should protect their resting place." 



THE REV. WILLIAM N. HAWKS 155 

Local Cemeteries 

Cedar Grove cemetery is the third important cemetery 
opened here for burials during the past two centuries. 
The first cemetery is said to have been located on the east 
side of Craven Street, between Pollock and South Front, 
about where the Taylor-Nixon house and adjoining struc- 
tures are now situated. 15 Previously, in 1715, every 
plantation owner had been ordered to set aside land for a 
family burial plot. 16 

The Episcopal church yard was the second community 
cemetery here. Besides the Rev. James Reed and John 
Wright Stanly, many important persons were buried 
there. But the site has attained more notoriety from the 
tombstone of Charles Elliott, provincial Attorney-General, 
who died in 1756, because of its unique epitaph: "An 
Honest Lawyer Indeed." 

Also in this quiet and peaceful God's Acre, so near the 
central business district of town, is the oft-quoted 
epitaph : 

"Behold and see as you pass by, 
As you are now, so once was I. 
As I am now, you soon must be 
Prepare for death and follow me." 

To a similar inscription in Massachusetts a student 
added : 

"To follow you I am not content 
Until I know which way you went." 

In the Southeastern part of the churchyard is a marble 
cross erected in 1869, through the efforts of the Hon. 
M. E. Manly, to the memory of a Roman Catholic priest, 
the Rev. Father Patricius (Patrick) Cleery, a native of 
Ireland, who came here on a visit to settle his sister's 
estate and died here in 1799 during a yellow fever 
epidemic, after he had worked valiantly for the relief of 
other local sufferers. The marble cross replaced a former 
lightwood board over his grave, with its tribute, "he died 
at his post," and the site was long tended by appreciative 
members of other denominations. 17 



156 CROWN OF LIFE 

At the west of the front entrance walk a mother, father 
and two sons are said to be buried in the same grave. 
Mrs. B. R. Morris heard the story from the late Col. James 
A. Bryan, who was a descendant of the family con- 
nections. 

James Bryan Jasper, a three-year-old boy, was drowned 
in Neuse River when he fell overboard from a wharf at 
the foot of Pollock Street near his home on that street. 
James Jasper, his father, "ran plunging in after him with 
hopes of saving his life," but was also drowned in the 
attempt, on September 21, 1796. The mother and infant 
son, named for the drowned brother, died on the day the 
baby was born. 

The church opened Cedar Grove cemetery in 1800 and 
transferred it to the city in 1854. There are buried many 
prominent personages, as William Gaston, William 
Williams, Peter Custis, Moses Griffin, John Stanly, and 
Mary Bayard Clarke, literary genius and talented poet. 

Moisture is held by the "Weeping Arch" entrance of 
native shell rock, and a superstition has long been that if 
water drops on anyone passing under the arch he will be 
the next one carried there in a hearse. 

The Confederate monument in the cemetery was 
erected May 11, 1885, by the Ladies' Memorial Asso- 
ciation, predecessor of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy. 

Across George Street, where the new cemetery exten- 
sion has been recently opened, there was a Federal 
cemetery during the War Between the States prior to the 
establishment of the present National cemetery farther 
out that street February 1, 1867. This latter seven-and- 
a-half-acre tract now has graves of 3,600 soldiers from 
twenty States. Names of 1,100 are unknown. Monu- 
ments to their war dead have been placed there by New 
Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts. 



i Vestry Minutes. 

- Diocesan Journal, 1832. 

3 Griffin's will probated in June, 1816, Craven County Record of 
Wills, Book C; pp. 132-34. Manuscripts in private collection of the 
late Mrs. Frederick C. Roberts, New Bern. Thomas, Henderson Lee, 
Public Education in Craven County, thesis submitted to faculty of 



THE REV. WILLIAM N. HAWKS 157 

University of North Carolina, towards Master of Arts degree in 
Department of Education, Chapel Hill, 1925, p. 32. Whitford, pp. 
214-17. 

4D. J., 1845. 

5 Ibid., 1846. 

6 Parish Registers (hereafter cited as P. R. ), 1847. 

7 V. M., 1853. 

8 P. R., 1831. 

9 Miller, op. cit., p. 344. 

io Ibid. Whitford, op. cit., 192. 

11 Whitford, 174. 

12 Material on Dr. Hawks came from numerous sources, especially 
references at the library of the New York Historical Society, New 
York City, which he helped organize and to which he left his his- 
torical collections. Miller, 247-48. Whitford, 118, 174, et passim. 

13 Miller, 248. 

14 Whitford, 118. 
^Ibid., 131. 

16 St. Rec, XXIII, 66-67. 

17 Whitford, 207. Catholic Church Diocesan histories in the library 
of the Rev. Father M. A. Irwin here. 



XL 1 1 

THE REV. HENRY F. GREENE 

After the resignation of the Rev. William Hawks as 
rector of Christ Church in 1853, the vestry extended a call 
to the Rev. A. A. Watson, of Plymouth, N. C, then at 
Brooklyn, N. Y., who had visited New Bern. Salary was 
set at $900. But he declined to leave his "flock." 1 Later 
he did become local rector, and afterwards in 1883 was 
named first Bishop of the Diocese of East Carolina. 

The Rev. Thomas Atkinson had been elected Bishop of 
North Carolina at the 1853 convention in Raleigh, to 
succeed Bishop Ives, and the local vestrymen asked him 
to recommend a rector. 2 

A petition signed by 68 men and women of the congre- 
gation urged the vestrymen to recall Mr. McRae to the 
local pulpit, but the vestry decided that this would not be 
for the best interest of the parish, especially since Bishop 
Atkinson had already recommended for the rectorate the 
Rev. Henry F. Greene, of Baltimore. 3 Accordingly, 
Greene was called and accepted, serving here for more 
than three years. 

Taking charge January 20, 1854, Mr. Greene soon 
reported "pleasing signs of interest." He told of work 
in the Sunday School, parish school and charitable 
society. 4 Despite his zeal, however, he was badly handi- 
capped because of ill health. 

Four new pews had been added in the church, it was 
reported August 10, 1854, and two pews had been en- 
larged. 5 That year the vestry declared that the church 
walls had been so "mutilated" by tablets it would be 
necessary thereafter to get official consent by paying 
$500 before any marker could be placed in the church. 
Later the amount of money was omitted, but vestry 
consent was still required for church tablets. 

During that 1854 Summer the vestry decided to try 
to get a new rectory. Consideration was given August 10 
to the purchase of the property of William P. Moore on 



THE REV. HENRY F. GREENE 159 

Pollock Street, but it was reported unfavorably by a 
committee composed of Mr. Greene, John Blackwell and 
M. W. Jarvis. 

On December 5 William Dunn, long secretary of the 
vestry, reported for a rectory committee that they had 
bargained with Dr. E. S. Hunter for his house, on the 
west side of Craven Street between New and Broad 
Streets. This was approved, and Mr. Dunn said that 
$1,977.50 had been subscribed for the purpose. To make 
up the $2,250 purchase price, $300 was lent by J. G. 
Stanly on a vestry note. 

Among the contributors listed were John Blackwell, 
$350; John N. Washington, $250; Stanly, Jarvis, Samuel 
Simpson and J. C. Justice, $200 each ; Samuel Oliver and 
Mrs. Daves, $150 each; and Alex Justice, $125. 6 

Although this lot was bought, it was not retained for 
a rectory, being sold to George S. Stevenson for $2,500 in 
August, 1859. 

In 1854 Judge George E. Badger, then United States 
Senator and former Secretary of the Navy, a native of 
New Bern, was asked to give the vestry an opinion as to 
the chance that the parish had in getting soon the bequest 
of Alice A. Thompson, of New Bern, who in 1836 had left 
property to the church after the life estate of relatives. 7 
It was said that the church was then entitled to twenty 
slaves and one-half interest in the house and lot adjoining 
the Presbyterian Church here. James W. Bryan was 
employed by the vestry as its attorney in the matter; 
later George S. Attmore was engaged as counsel. 

A vestry resolution of June 24, 1856, paid tribute to 
William Dunn, who had died. Mention was made of a 
"deep sense of his worth as a man, of his usefulness as a 
citizen, of his valuable services as a member of the vestry 
and of our great loss by his removal from our midst." 
The next year a resolution was adopted in memory of 
Matthew A. Outten, vestryman, "Citizen, Friend and 
Christian." 

The diocesan convention at Washington May 21-24, 
1856, was informed that for nearly eight months there 
had been no regular services at Christ Church, causing a 



160 CROWN OF LIFE 

deficit in the parish quota, due to the illness of the rector. 8 

But Mr. Greene reported nevertheless that the Ladies 
Sewing Society "without fairs or public sales" had been 
able to raise "considerable sums" for the parish and for 
missions. He added that he had visited church communi- 
cants, that the parish "ragged school" for the poor was 
then under a salaried teacher, that a Young Ladies' school 
was to be opened soon, and that a Classical school with 
church and secular training had been established. 

The next year he told of "favorable signs of progress 
and improvement." The free schools for the poor were 
said to have been directed by the rector; with the Rev. 
J. V. Stryker, assistant rector, in charge of the Classical 
school. Mr. Stryker had been engaged to assist Mr. 
Greene, because of the latter's poor health. 10 

In a letter dated June 21, 1856, Mr. Greene reminded 
the vestry of his "feeble and precarious state of health," 
and said that a complete rest, with change of climate, had 
been advised by his physician. Accordingly, he expressed 
willingness to resign as rector. 11 

Instead of accepting a resignation, vestrymen on July 
1 granted the rector a leave of absence for three months. 
"Time will bring healing on its wings," they assured 
him. 12 But, despite his Summer vacation, his condition 
remained unfavorable upon his return to duty. 

On April 20, 1857, he submitted his formal resignation, 
because of "physical incapacity to perform duties." He 
declared he was leaving the church "in a prosperous 
condition," and expressed gratification that his "relations 
. . . have always been those of cordial friendship to 
yourselves and other members of the congregation." 13 

For their part, in their reply, the vestry praised his 
record: "You have raised the church in this parish to a 
condition of prosperity spiritually that has not been en- 
joyed for many, many years." His personality and 
character were also complimented, with "veneration and 
love for you as a faithful, Godfearing and conscientious 
Pastor." 14 

Mr. Greene was requested to keep on holding church 
services, with the aid of Mr. Stryker, so long as he re- 



THE REV. HENRY F. GREENE 161 

mained in New Bern, even after his resignation became 
effective. This he agreed to do. Mr. Stryker continued 
to serve here also until July 20, 1857. From here Mr. 
Greene went to Morganton, then to Raleigh, where he 
died about I860. 15 



IV. M. 


, 1853. 


2 Ibid. 




3 Ibid. 




4 D. J., 


1854. 


5 V. M. 


, 1854. 


GIbid. 


Cravi 


7 Ibid. 




8 D. J., 


1856. 


9 Ibid. 




io Ibid., 


1857. 


ii V. M. 


, 1856. 


12 Ibid. 




13 Ibid., 


1857. 


14 Hid. 




15 Roberts, op, 



Craven County Record of Deeds, Book 62; pp. 188-89. 



cit., p. 15. 



XLIII 

THE REV. THOMAS G. HAUGHTON 

Again the vestry voted to call the Rev. Mr. Watson to 
the local rectorate, taking this action June 18, 1857, salary 
being fixed at $900 ; but a letter received from him stated 
he would decline if called, so the invitation was not 
formally extended. 1 

The Rev. Thomas G. Haughton, of Salisbury, was asked 
to become the rector of Christ Church. He accepted June 
29. But, as he was busily engaged in erecting a church 
at Lexington and attending to other work in his parishes, 
he could not move to New Bern until September. His 
salary was to be $800 a year. 2 

Mr. Haughton told the diocesan convention in 1858 of 
signs of improved demands for church pews, there not 
being enough seats available to fill the requests. He also 
told of a gradual addition to the number of male communi- 
cants, and said that the free school was "flourishing" 
under his direction. 3 

However, after only a short rectorate, Mr. Haughton 
submitted his resignation July 6, 1858. He regretted to 
sever the "tie which united us so pleasantly," he wrote, 
but desired to return upstate as rector of St. Luke's 
Church, Salisbury. 4 

"Heartfelt sorrow" was expressed by the vestry in 
having to accept the resignation. It was pointed out that 
Mr. Haughton during his nine months in the community 
had been held in "highest esteem and respect." 5 

Vestrymen at once wrote to Bishop Atkinson for advice 
in trying to get a new rector as soon as possible. They 
asserted that a minister was particularly needed here 
during the Summer, "owing to the sickness which more 
generously prevails and the deaths which more frequently 
occur." 

Friends again contacted the Rev. Mr. Watson to see if 
he would then accept a local call. The reply must have 
been favorable. For, he was unanimously called from 



THE REV. THOMAS G. HAUGHTON 163 

Plymouth on August 23, being offered an annual salary 
of $800 and a rectory. He accepted this third call, and 
said he would move here as soon as he could arrange his 
business affairs. 7 

In those days it required a long time to travel to New 
Bern, without the modern railroads, bus service and good 
roads. When Mr. Greene first came here from Baltimore 
in 1854, the vestrymen advised him to come by steamship 
from Baltimore to Norfolk, thence by railroad via Weldon 
to Goldsboro, and then by stage from Goldsboro to New 
Bern. 8 

Not until April 29, 1858, was the Old Mullet Road com- 
pleted between this city and Goldsboro by the Atlantic 
and North Carolina Railroad Company. A mammoth 
celebration was held here that day, with addresses by 
Henry W. Miller and Dr. Francis L. Hawks. 9 

Yet, Bishop Atkinson and other church leaders man- 
aged to come fairly often to this city. This bishop was 
exceptionally popular here and elsewhere through the 
diocese. His tact, personality and spirituality appealed 
to all classes. 

Bishop Thomas A. Atkinson 

Born in Virginia August 6, 1807, Thomas A. Atkinson 10 
was a great-grandson of a Church of England clergyman. 
He was educated at Yale and Hampden-Sidney, then 
studied law and was admitted to the bar, practicing 
successfully for eight years. 

During the year 1836 he was ordained an Episcopal 
deacon, and the next year became a minister. Important 
charges were held, at St. Paul's in Norfolk, at Lynchburg, 
and then at St. Peter's Church, Baltimore. He made such 
a success of this last parish that Grace Church was built 
for him in Baltimore and he became its rector in 1852. 

Twice he declined the Indiana bishopric; first, because 
of lack of experience, and second, because he did not 
believe in slavery but was sympathetic to the Southern 
attitude. In 1853 he would have perhaps been made 
Bishop of South Carolina but he considered slavery an 
evil. 



164 CROWN OF LIFE 

That was the year he was called to succeed Bishop Ives 
in North Carolina. He accepted, and was consecrated 
that year in St. John's Chapel, New York, during the 
General Convention. His influence quickly increased 
through this State and the South. A degree of Doctor of 
Divinity was conferred upon him by Trinity College, 
Hartford ; and Doctor of Laws by the University of North 
Carolina and Cambridge University. 

His term of more than 27 years as Bishop, however, 
was filled with political, industrial, social and religious 
problems. He approved of the War Between the States 
and favored the separation of the Southern Episcopal 
Church from the Northern, but denied that the Act of 
Secession brought that separation. 

After the war, he was prominent in effecting the re- 
conciliation and reunion of the churches and in restoring 
confidence and peace among their members. At the 1865 
General Convention he and Bishop Lay prevented any 
action that might have prohibited the return of the 
Southern churches on honorable terms. 

Under his leadership, the Church assisted the State of 
North Carolina in solving many of the reconstruction 
difficulties. Tireless in his efforts, he saw the Episcopal 
Church grow and spread steadily over the State. 

In 1853, when he assumed the bishopric, there were 36 
ministers, 42 congregations and 1,788 communicants; 
seven years later, the number of communicants had been 
doubled and there were 44 ministers and 53 congregations. 
By 1873 there were 50 clergymen and 3,742 communi- 
cants, with total contributions of $55,381.58. By 1883 
there were 76 ministers and 5,889 communicants. 

Some years before his death on January 4, 1881, Bishop 
Atkinson consented to the election of an assistant bishop, 
the Rev. Theodore Benedict Lyman, of California, who 
was consecrated in 1873. Bishop Atkinson's body was 
interred beneath the chancel of St. James Church, Wil- 
mington, which he served as rector without giving up the 
episcopate from March, 1863, to December, 1864, during 
the War Between the States. 



THE REV. THOMAS G. HAUGHTON 165 

IV. M., 1857. 

2 Ibid. 

3 D. J., 1858. 

4 V. M., 1858. 

5 Ibid. 

6 Ibid. 

7 Ibid. 

8 Ibid., 1854. 

9 Whitford, pp. 228-29. Old newspaper accounts. 

io Watson, op. cit., pp. 292-95. Marshall, op. cit., pp. 342-43. These 
two constituted the chief sources for the facts about Bishop 
Atkinson. 



XLIV 

THE REV. A. A. WATSON 

One of the most beloved of all local and East Carolina 
churchmen, later being named the first Bishop of the 
Diocese of East Carolina, the Rev. Alfred Augustin 
Watson became rector of Christ Church during the Fall 
of 1858. 1 

Moses W. Jarvis resigned as secretary of the vestry 
March 12, 1860, after long and faithful service. In letters 
he spoke of "affectionate recollections of his past connec- 
tions" with the vestry. He was succeeded by William H. 
Oliver. 2 

In April, 1860, a lot adjoining the church property, on 
the corner of Pollock and Craven Streets, was selected 
for purchase, provided the cost did not exceed more than 
the worth of the three county bonds and five shares of 
Bank of Commerce stock derived from the sale of the old 
parsonage site. 3 

The vestry minutes abruptly stop May 3, 1860. Those 
were stirring times of civil conflicts that ended in war. 
Watson's parish registers here go into the year 1861, 
when with many young men of his church he entered the 
Confederate Army. As Chaplain of the Second Regiment, 
North Carolina troops, his work in the hospitals and on 
the battlefields makes a story of great inspiration. 

During the first part of his local rectorate he took a 
special interest in the parish school and worked untir- 
ingly among the poor. His first report to the diocese in 
1859 stated that forty children were then attending the 
free school here. 4 

At the diocesan convention in 1861 at Morganton 
Bishop Atkinson said he had confirmed a colored person 
at New Bern June 15, 1860, and eleven white persons and 
one colored here May 19-20, 1861. 5 

Lay delegates elected from this parish for that meeting 
were Mr. Oliver, James W. Bryan, Fred C. Roberts and 
Henry R. Bryan. 



THE REV. A. A. WATSON 167 

Dr. Watson reported for the year 57 baptisms, four 
marriages, 33 funerals, 106 communicants and contri- 
butions of $1,454.80. He said he had officiated occasion- 
ally at camp in New Bern, and had baptized two persons 
at St. Thomas Chapel near this city. 6 

To the diocesan convention of 1862 Dr. Watson reported 
again as rector of Christ Church and also as army 
chaplain. He told of the capture of New Bern March 14, 
1862, and the previous unsettled conditions and "great 
obstructions to the work of the parish." 7 

During the middle of the previous July, he said, he had 
joined the Confederate Army but at the request of the 
vestry had kept his local rectorate. In the latter part of 
September, 1861, he continued, the Rev. William R. 
Wetmore had been engaged as assistant rector and had 
served in that capacity until the capture of New Bern. 

Although Mr. Wetmore remained in New Bern, Dr. 
Watson reported, he was "no longer able, consistently 
with self-respect and his duty to the true government, to 
perform public service. The intruders, in violation of all 
Church principles, Canon law and religious liberty, then 
took possession of the edifice and placed one of their own 
Chaplains in it. 

"By far the principal part of the congregation with- 
drew from the town at the time of its capture. A few, 
however, remained, and for them and for our prisoners in 
the hand of the enemy Mr. Wetmore continued to per- 
form such official acts as were practicable." 8 

Mr. Wetmore reported 45 baptisms and 38 funerals. 
There were no confirmations, as the Bishop's scheduled 
visit was cancelled by the fall of New Bern. Of those 
baptized, five were Confederate soldiers. Two were bap- 
tized after having been wounded in the Battle of New 
Bern, and died soon afterwards. Mr. Wetmore said that 
the sick and wounded after the battle were cared for by 
the ladies of the town. 9 

Throughout the war years Dr. Watson baptized a 
number of persons on Army battlefields. Some of his 
baptism records here and elsewhere during the first part 



168 CROWN OF LIFE 

of the war are filed here among the local parish docu- 
ments. 

In 1863 Dr. Watson was called to Wilmington as 
assistant rector at St. James Church, where Bishop 
Atkinson was then acting as rector for almost two war 
years. The latter retired from the rectorate in December, 
1864, and Dr. Watson was unanimously elected rector, a 
post he held until his election as Bishop in 1883. 

Unable to accomplish much at New Bern, Mr. Wetmore 
left the city. In 1863, according to diocesan records, he 
was at Lincolnton and Shelby. There was no report or 
representation of the local church at the convention held 
that year in Fayetteville. 

The New Constitution of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in North Carolina was adopted in May, 1863 ; and, 
also because of the war, the canons were then revised. 10 

No report, no minister and no lay delegation were 
listed for Christ Church in either 1864 or 1865, while the 
town remained in the hands of the Northern conquerors. 

Services were held at the church from time to time by 
Union Army Chaplains. Major Russell Sturgis, Jr., of 
the 45th. Massachusetts Regiment here, former president 
of the Boston Y. M. C. A., often held Sunday morning 
services at the church, with music by a male quartet. 
This major became superintendent of a Sunday school he 
started there for poor children. 11 

Stephen Miller quotes an excerpt from an article in 
Harper's Weekly about the fall of New Bern : 

"The fruits of the victory were six forts, thirty-four 
heavy guns, six steam boats, and public property to the 
amount of two millions of dollars . . . The next day 
(March 15th) was the Sabbath. By order of Gen. Burn- 
side, all the churches were thrown open, the army 
chaplains officiated, and thanks were returned to God for 
the signal victory he had granted the patriot armies." 12 

One Post Chaplain, the Rev. J. Hill Rouse, an Episcopal 
clergyman affectionately called "Father Rouse," did 
valiant service here in 1864 during the yellow fever 
epidemic. It was written of him: 



THE REV. A. A. WATSON 169 

"How you have borne up through many weeks of 
constant service in thy holy calling, exposed to the 
epidemic's fury, no mortal knows, but you shall rest 
embalmed in the memory of those whose kindred you have 
blessed." 13 

Besides Col. T. J. C. Amory, who succumbed to yellow 
fever here October 6, 1864, another war disease victim 
among the Unionists was George Brooks, of Massa- 
chusetts, brother of the noted divine, Phillips Brooks, who 
died of typhoid fever at the Stanly hospital here Feb- 
ruary 10, 1863. 14 

Another Massachusetts soldier stationed here during 
those critical days miraculously recovered from desperate 
illness to live and work for the spread of the Kingdom of 
God on earth. 

Dr. Russell H. Conwell, Baptist minister, who later 
built up the largest Protestant church in America, 
founded Temple University and two hospitals at Phila- 
delphia, and helped educate 100,000 youths through 
earnings from his famed lecture, "Acres of Diamonds," 
was converted from atheism to Christianity by the brave 
act of his young orderly, John Ring, who lost his life in 
saving Union Captain Conwell's sword after a Confederate 
attack on their fort near Newport January 30, 1864, while 
the officer was attending to army business at Federal 
Department headquarters in New Bern. 15 

During the war, books were brought here from Boston 
for a library maintained by a noted Union Army chaplain, 
the Rev. Dr. Andrew L. Stone. 16 The first Negro public 
schools in North Carolina were opened here by the 
Northerners in 1862 when New England soldiers volun- 
teered as teachers. 17 

The Rt. Rev. A. A. Watson, 18 D.D., LL.D., S.T.D., is still 
regarded as one of the outstanding rectors of this church. 
He was born in New York City April 21, 1818, and was 
brought up by Presbyterian parents in the Presbyterian 
faith. 

Like Bishop Atkinson, he was educated and licensed 
as an attorney. After being graduated from New York 



170 CROWN OF LIFE 

University, he studied law in the office of Chancellor Kent 
and was admitted to the bar in 1841. 

As a tutor for the family of Josiah Collins near Cres- 
well, Dr. Watson came to North Carolina. Mr. Collins 
was a loyal churchman; he was a nephew of Mrs. James 
McKinlay, of New Bern. 19 Mrs. Collins, reared a Presby- 
terian, had joined the Episcopal church when her first 
baby was christened. 

Watson became deeply impressed by the morning and 
evening prayers said daily in the plantation chapel for all 
the family, guests and servants. Mrs. Collins gave him 
a Prayer Book and told him to mark in it anything with 
which he differed and someday they would discuss those 
passages. 

According to a version of this story related by Mrs. 
Rebecca Wood Drane, great-granddaughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Collins, 20 Watson kept the book a long time, then 
finally returned it to Mrs. Collins, saying, "Mrs. Collins, 
here is your book and you will not find a mark in it. There 
is nothing that I would want changed." 

Other books about the church were lent to him by Mrs. 
Collins. He undertook an intensive study of the Episcopal 
doctrines, became convinced of apostolic authority, and 
decided to be baptized and confirmed. 

His family "went to bed sick at heart at such departure 
from family traditions, but 'once convinced nothing could 
turn Brother from his decision'," Mrs. May Webb 
Cranmer quotes his sister as saying. 21 

After special training at the General Seminary, he was 
ordained a deacon November 3, 1844. The next May 25 
he was ordained priest by Bishop Ives in St. John's 
Church, Fayetteville. 

Becoming rector at Plymouth, for some years he carried 
on mission work through that section. Grace Church was 
founded there in 1837 by the Rev. E. M. Forbes and Dr. 
Samuel J. Johnston, and the church was consecrated on 
the second Sunday after Easter in 1840. As rector, Dr. 
Watson had the Rev. George Patterson as his assistant 
there for some time. 



THE REV. A. A. WATSON 171 

Following his rectorate at New Bern and his war 
service, when he was made rector of St. James Church, 
Wilmington, he was authorized in 1865 to get an assis- 
tant, and he obtained the Rev. Mr. Patterson again. Upon 
organization of the Diocese of East Carolina here in 1883, 
he was named its first Bishop. He died April 1, 1905. 

Illustrative of his force of character and religion and 
his deep devotion to the Southern government, a story is 
told of how he continued to offer prayers for Jefferson 
Davis, president of the Confederacy, after he returned to 
his rectorate at Wilmington following close of the war. 

Gen. Joseph R. Hawley, commander of the Union troops 
in control of Wilmington, ordered him to stop praying for 
Davis and start immediately praying for the President of 
the United States. Dr. Watson fearlessly continued his 
Confederate prayers, with this defiant reply to General 
Hawley: "I take my orders from my Bishop and not 
from a Union General." 22 



i V. M., 1858. 

2 Ibid., 1860. 

3 Ibid. 

4 D. J., 1859. 
^ Ibid., 1861. 
c Ibid. 

7 Ibid., 1862. 
s Ibid. 
9 Ibid. 
io Ibid., 1863. 

ii History of the Forty-Fifth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia, compiled by Albert W. Mann, regimental historian, pp. 227, 
229, 230-31. 

12 Miller, op. cit., 467. 

13 Whitford, op. cit., 322. 

14 Mann, op. cit., pp. 93, 184. 

15 Burr, Agnes Rush, Russell H. Conwell and His Work. 
ie Mann, op. cit., p. 229. 

17 North Carolina, A Guide to the Old North State, compiled and 
written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Federal Works 
Agency, Work Projects Administration, p. 223. Mann, op. cit., p. 230. 

is Information on Bishop Watson was compiled from many dif- 
ferent sources, including church histories, church paper articles and 
Roberts, op. cit., pp, 16-18. 

19 Record of Wills, Craven County, Book D, p. 18. 

20 Mission Herald, April, 1940, p. 174. 

21 Ibid., June, 1940, p. 12. 

22 Moore, Louis T., "State's Historic City," article on Wilmington, 
N. C, published in The Greensboro Daily News, Sunday, March 6, 
1927. 



XLV 

THE REV. EDWARD M. FORBES 

After the war the first rector here was the Rev. 
Edward M. Forbes, who held the pastorate from January 
1, 1866, until 1877, the third longest service of all the 
local ministers. He was a native New Bernian, born here 
in 1810, son of Stephen B. Forbes, who had been born in 
February, 1780, and had died May 3, I860. 1 

Early in life the son became partially paralyzed and 
was left permanently lame. He was never quite well, 
though seldom ill enough to be confined. Small in stature, 
only five feet in height and 100 pounds in weight, he was 
a giant in intellect. 2 

Recognized as exceptionally well informed on the Bible, 
he was the author of an oral catechism. Through his 
entire career he "went about doing good." Industrious 
and consecrated, he was one of the most beloved of all 
the ministers of his time. Though poor in material things 
and generous to the needy, he was thrifty and economical, 
so left a considerable estate. He was never married. 

On May 8, 1836, he was ordained a priest in Christ 
Church, New Bern, by Bishop Ives ; at the same time the 
Revs. Cameron F. McRae and Harvey Stanly were or- 
dained as deacons. Mr. McRae came here as rector two 
years later. Stanly was a member of the prominent local 
Stanly family and became important as a priest. He held 
services frequently here. 

In February, 1844, Mr. Forbes preached in Mobile, Ala., 
Henry Clay being in the audience. 3 While rector of Christ 
Church, Elizabeth City, where he served long and ably, 
he was the presiding officer of the first convocation of the 
diocese, held in 1849 at Elizabeth City. 

Following his arrival here from Elizabeth City as the 
rector of the reorganized congregation after the War 
Between the States, he reported to the next diocesan 
convention, which was held in New Bern May 30 to June 
4, 1866: "I took charge of this congregation on the first 



THE REV. EDWARD M. FORBES 173 

of January, 1866, and found it much affected in every 
way by the war." 4 

All four delegates named from Christ Church attended 
the diocesan meetings here: Jacob Gooding, William H. 
Oliver, John Hughes and Frederick C. Roberts. Alter- 
nates were William G. Hall, Henry R. Bryan and Peter 
E. Hines. 

Because of the absence of Bishop Atkinson on account 
of illness, the Rev. Dr. Mason presided here in his former 
parish, and the Bishop's address was read by another 
former local rector, the Rev. Dr. Watson. The Bishop 
reported that on the previous November 26 he had con- 
firmed five persons here. 

For the five months that Mr. Forbes had been in the 
city, he listed eleven baptisms, four marriages, and sfx 
burials; with sixty white communicants, 15 colored com- 
municants, and 100 catechumens. Total contributions 
were $609. 

The next diocesan convention was held at Wilmington. 
John Hughes was the only local lay delegate in attendance. 
Mr. Forbes reported 103 communicants, with 29 baptisms, 
a substantial gain for the year. 5 

At that time he announced that all the colored com- 
municants had been transferred to St. Cyprian's Church 
here, with the Rev. H. A. Skinner in charge as their 
rector. Two years after the start of this colored church 
102 members were reported. Previously most of the 
Episcopal ministers here had given much time to work 
among the Negroes, and many of that race had belonged 
to Christ Church. 

The first African Episcopal congregation in North 
Carolina had been formed at Fayetteville in 1832 under a 
white rector. 6 The next year Bishop Ives mentioned 
visiting the Negro congregation at New Bern, which he 
said he found in a "flourishing condition." 7 Here, too, 
Sunday evening services at times had been given over 
"to lectures on the Scriptures and catechetical instruction 
for the benefit of the coloured people," as reported in 1826 
by Dr. Mason. 8 A colored congregation was again formed 
in 1845 by the Rev. Mr. Hawks. 9 But the St. Cyprian 



174 CROWN OF LIFE 

organization soon after the War Between the States was 
the first permanent one of the kind here. 

Results of the work of Mr. Forbes were also evident in 
1868 at Tarboro, when he reported 136 communicants and 
49 baptisms. Three candidates for orders were an- 
nounced: Benjamin P. Winfield, Edmund Joyner and 
James W. Gray. 10 

A valuable gift for this parish was also reported, the 
children of the late John P. Daves having dedicated in 
his memory a lot and a building for a parochial school. 
This was the remaining old west wing of historic Tryon 
Palace, which had been repaired by Northern friends. It 
was equipped by women of the parish for the instruction 
of poor children. Three rooms were used for classes, and 
a fourth for a chapel. 

A tablet was erected there, with this inscription: "To 
the Church of the Living God. In Memory of John P. 
Daves By His Affectionate Children. January, 1868." 
When the Palace wing was later disposed of, this marble 
marker was removed to Christ Church yard. It was 
moved and reset in recent years when the parish house 
addition was erected. 

Also moved and reset along with the Daves tablet at 
the same time was another marble marker, inscribed to 
"Mary, relict of James McKinlay," who died in 1840. This 
was also probably taken from its original place in the 
Tryon Palace chapel. Mrs. McKinlay was Mr. Daves' 
sister. 11 She is buried in the Daves plot near the entrance 
in Cedar Grove cemetery. 

The Daves family was long prominent here. Major 
John Daves, father of John Pugh Daves, died here in 
1804 and was first interred in Cedar Grove cemetery, 
where a marker still stands. But the body was removed 
in June, 1893, to Guilford Battleground National Park 
near Greensboro. He was a captain in the North Caro- 
lina Continental Line, distinguished for bravery and 
gallantry at the Revolutionary engagements at German- 
town, Stony Point and Eutaw Springs. Here he served 
as the first Collector of the Port of New Bern, and became 



THE REV. EDWARD M. FORBES \75 

an original member of the State Society of the 
Cincinnati. 12 

John P. Daves died March 1, 1838. 13 A daughter of his, 
Mary M. Daves, was married here August 11, 1850, 14 at 
the Daves home near Tryon's Palace to John W. Ellis, of 
Rowan County, Governor of North Carolina 1859-61 and 
a leader of the secession movement in this State. He 
died in July, 1861, at the age of 40 years. 

In 1869 Mr. Forbes reported to the convention at 
Raleigh that he was being assisted here by the Rev. 
William B. Gordon, then a deacon, later rector at Kinston. 
He told of 42 baptisms and 125 communicants, with 
contributions of $2,588. 15 

Besides saying that the parochial school was "con- 
tinuing to prosper," Mr. Forbes announced the formation 
of a "Church Relief Society" by the women of the 
congregation, for the benefit of the poor. These edu- 
cational and benevolent projects were always close to his 
heart. Much of his time and means was used in aiding 
poor boys. 

"I am happy to state that the Laity of my Parish are 
working with great energy and earnestness, and thus 
contribute much to the prosperity of the Church," he 
told the next convention at Edenton, when he reported 
37 baptisms, 29 confirmations and 143 communicants. 
"The Relief Society have been very successful and have 
done much to relieve both the temporal and spiritual 
wants of the poor." 16 

From June to December, 1870, the Rev. James A. 
Weston held services at the local church. At another 
period the Rev. Mr. Eddy assisted in the parish. 17 

Throughout his entire career Mr. Forbes was kind and 
helpful to young ministers and ministerial students. But, 
he was not narrow or bigoted about his own religion. 
Once at Beaufort a theological student named Rice 
became convinced that baptism by immersion was right 
and necessary. Mr. Forbes had been training him for the 
Episcopal ministry, but instead procured financial aid for 
him and encouraged him to go to Wake Forest College to 
study for the Baptist ministry. 18 



176 CROWN OF LIFE 

i Tombstone records in Cedar Grove cemetery. 

2 Data on Mr. Forbes came from several sources, especially 
Roberts, op. cit., pp. 19-20, and other references as indicated. 

3 Miller, op. cit., p. 241. 

4 D. J., 1866. 

5 Ibid., 1867. 

6 Johnson, op. cit., p. 547. 
7D. J., 1833. 

8 Supra, p. 127. 

9 Supra, p. 151. 
io D. J., 1868. 

ii Record of Wills, Craven County, Book D, pp. 13-18. 

12 Tombstone inscription, Cedar Grove cemetery. 

13 Craven County Wills, Book C, pp. 417-18. 

14 Record of Marriage Bonds, Craven County, Book B, p. 340. 
is D. J., 1869. 

is Ibid., 1870. 

17 R R. 

is Whitford, op. cit., p. 264. 




Present Episcopal Church, Consecrated 1875 



XLVI 

CHURCH FIRE 

On the night of Tuesday, January 10, 1871, about 9 :30 
o'clock, the dreaded fire alarm was sounded here. The 
blaze was discovered in Hahn's Bakery, on Pollock Street, 
which was then located about where Baxter's Jewelry 
Store now stands, just across the street from the church. 

As the flames progressed fiercely to other buildings, 
sparks flew over to the shingle roof on the brick church. 
Soon the southwest corner was in flames. In spite of 
heroic efforts, the blaze enveloped the roof, steeple and 
entire building, inside and out, with the exception of a 
portion of the side brick walls. 1 

When the steeple was burning, the large bell gave way 
and crashed to the ground. Eye witnesses asserted that 
it tolled mournfully as it fell. After the debris had been 
cleared away it was found, a mass of molten metal. Many 
pieces were carried away. Later the vestry permitted the 
Ladies' Sewing Society to use it for the sale of souvenirs. 2 

According to Miss Dita Roberts, the first donation for 
a new church came from a three-year-old child, who 
watched the fire and remarked to her mother, "Mama, I've 
dot free cents, and I'm going to dive it to you to buy some 
nails to build a new church." 3 

The loss of the edifice and its contents was a terrific 
calamity to the congregation and the city. Mr. Forbes 
did not know of the fire until the following day. 4 As soon 
as they could regain their composure, the rector and 
members began at once to formulate ways and means for 
reconstruction. 

A building committee was appointed. 5 Societies and 
clubs started striving to raise money in various ways. 
George Bishop was chosen as contractor for a new 
church. 6 He was the father of E. K. Bishop, later Senior 
Warden. Meanwhile, the Presbyterians offered the use of 
their church on Sunday nights. 7 The George Street 
Chapel in old Tryon's Palace was also used. 



178 CROWN OF LIFE 

Among the organizations that worked for funds was 
the Juvenile Sewing Society, formed and directed by Mrs. 
Sarah Bennett Carraway, wife of Major Daniel T. 
Carraway, for some years an officer of the vestry. Mem- 
bers of this group were girls from five years old to teen- 
age. They made paper lamplighters, knitted garments 
and sewed quilt squares and other articles at their weekly 
meetings, selling them for the benefit of the church 
building fund. 

In addition to contributing $100 to the building fund, 
they donated at cost of $350 the main altar window of 
Christ blessing the little children. They also presented an 
altar chair. So outstanding was their work that the 
vestry under a special complimentary resolution in 1874, 
the only one of the kind in the records so far as known, 
presented Mrs. Carraway with a deed for a pew, (Number 
36) in the new church. 8 

There are still extant copies of a small pamphlet : "The 
Juvenile Sewing Society of Christ's Church, New Bern. 
Answer to an Appeal. For Benefit of the Church. 
Lovingly Inscribed to a Former Pastor, by Esclairmond 
Claremont, N. C, Jan. 29, 1871." 

Fairs and feasts also helped pay for the new structure, 
which was slowly erected on the remaining walls of the 
former building. A new organ, new furnishings and new 
equipment were needed for the larger church. Numerous 
memorials, as the windows, were given by members. 

At the 1871 diocesan convention in Warrenton, Mr. 
Forbes reported : "While my people bow with meek sub- 
mission under this heavy visitation of the Almighty, it 
gives me pleasure to state that they have gone to work 
with increased energy and zeal, not only to rebuild the 
Temple of the Lord but also to enlarge it, so as to become 
the home of the poor and the stranger." 9 

Mr. Forbes added that nothing had been neglected in 
the building plans, and that work was progressing with 
Sunday school and the Relief Society. He said there had 
been 34 baptisms and twelve confirmations during the 
previous year, and that the 156 members had contributed 
$7,069.84. The church treasurer, Major Carraway, was 



CHURCH FIRE 179 

the only lay delegate present ; he reported that the rector's 
salary of $1,100 had been paid in full. 

Augustus M. Flythe was then reported as a candidate 
for Holy Orders from New Bern, and at the 1872 con- 
vention in Salisbury he was said to be a deacon residing 
at New Bern as a missionary to nearby points. He told 
of 24 communicants at St. Thomas Church in Craven 
County, and said he also often visited Kinston. 10 

Another candidate from here, Alexander Bass, was 
mentioned by Mr. Forbes, another illustration of the 
rector's splendid influence over young men. He also told 
the convention that an additional $5,076 had been raised 
for the church building fund during the year, $772 for 
the Relief Society, and $580.52 for the Sunday School. 

Despite lack of a church, the parish work went forward 
along practically every line. In 1874 the bishop reported 
that he had preached here and confirmed twenty persons. 11 
During that Summer the Rev. N. E. Price held services 
for four Sundays and the Rev. C. 0. Brady preached on 
Sunday, July 5. 12 

The 1875 convention met May 19-21 in the new church 
at New Bern. The Rev. Mr. Price, then a deacon, was 
reported to be assisting the local rector. There were 173 
church members listed; with 90 white and 180 colored 
students in the parochial schools. 13 

By that time the church had been completed, with the 
exception of the steeple, which was added some years later 
by gift of Miss Anne Donnell, a former member, then 
living in New Jersey, who had previously donated a 
window and a new bell. 14 

On Sunday, May 23, 1875, the church was consecrated 
by Bishop Atkinson. Also in attendance were Bishop 
Lyman and a large number of clergymen. Proper papers 
were presented by Senior Warden Jacob Gooding; and 
signed by him and the other vestrymen: William H. 
Oliver, John Hughes, D. T. Carraway, Joseph Fulford, 
Henry R. Bryan and George Roberts. During the service 
the Rev. Mr. Windley was ordained a deacon. 15 

The interior architecture of the church is still con- 
sidered unique. The high turtle-back ceiling must have 



180 CROWN OF LIFE 

steel supports all the way across from side to side, for 
there are no inner supports. The roof is of slate. Gothic 
designs are evident in the chancel, windows, pews, chairs 
and other features, except the Roman front doorways. 

A number of changes have been made since then in the 
church. A front porch was built in 1884 in memory of 
Miss Elizabeth Peterson, who in 1876 willed the necessary 
funds. About 1914 the Rev. B. F. Huske, then rector, 
had charge of extending and enlarging the chancel and 
choir stalls, making decided improvements. The parish 
house was built during the first decade of the next 
century, and the church was then again extensively 
renovated. The parish house addition was constructed 
during the past few years, and the sacristy in 1939. 

Mr. Forbes had resigned as rector here the night before 
the church fire, but as soon as he learned of that disaster 
the next day he decided to remain here and devote his 
energies to the task of rebuilding. His resignation was 
again submitted May 25, 1875, but the vestry unanimously 
declined to accept it. 16 

Later he again resigned, effective January 1, 1877, but 
offered to continue as acting rector until a successor could 
be obtained. 17 So much difficulty was experienced in 
getting another minister that he severed his local con- 
nection April 29, 1877. The Rev. T. B. Haughton, study- 
ing here under him, was engaged temporarily; and Mr. 
Forbes was requested to assist occasionally. 18 

In March of that year another deep loss was sustained 
by the parish in the death of Mr. Gooding, long Senior 
Warden and active church leader. The vestry adopted 
resolutions highly extolling him. 

The organ was installed in the church that year. 
Vestrymen recorded thanks for the financial aid of the 
Sunday School pupils who made its purchase possible and 
of the Old Dominion Steam Ship Company and the 
Merchants and Miners Line which transported it here 
free of charge from Boston. 19 

As this was a second-hand musical instrument when 
brought here, it is now probably one of the oldest pipe 
organs in the country. It was made by the Jardine Organ 



CHURCH FIRE 181 

Company, one of the first pipe organ builders. Originally, 
the pipes were of wood, and the old pump had to be 
worked by hand before the installation of electricity. An 
old traction type, it still corresponds to the ox cart method 
of transportation as compared to the more modern organs ; 
but organ experts highly praise its music and assert that 
its tones can not be reproduced today. 

For a time after leaving Christ Church, Mr. Forbes 
assisted here at St. Cyprian's Church, which he had so 
helpfully sponsored. He is even said to have given this 
church to the Negroes. 20 Formerly it had been the first 
Baptist church here, completed by 1812. 

The last years of Mr. Forbes' life were spent as rector 
of St. Paul's Church, Beaufort. He died at Beaufort 
September 25, 1893, at the age of 83. The funeral was 
held the next day from Christ Church here and he was 
buried in New Bern. 

His keen interest in this parish and diocese, as well as 
his unfailing desire to aid the poor and unfortunate, were 
exemplified in his will. Among his many bequests were 
the following: to the diocese all his property not other- 
wise devised, $250 annually for missionaries in the diocese 
and $1,000 for loans to ministerial students; $50 for 
foreign and domestic missions ; $50 for the widows and 
orphans of diocesan clergymen; funds to insure St. 
Cyprian's colored church and St. Augustine School near 
Raleigh; $115 annually for a scholarship for diocesan 
ministerial students at St. Augustine's School, this insti- 
tution also being left his books; $25 annually for the 
Christ Church Relief Society; $5 annually for a Thanks- 
giving Day dinner for the poor here ; and $5 annually for 
the poor here on Christmas or Holy Innocents Day. 21 

Resolutions passed by the vestry for Mr. Forbes read in 
part, as follows: "Resolved: that the parish of Christ 
Church will cherish in loving memory his faithful per- 
formance of duty as its rector for a period of eleven years. 
His valuable services in organizing the congregation after 
the disturbance of the late war; the instituting of 
Memorial Chapel with the Parochial and Sunday Schools ; 
the organizing of Christ Church Relief Society; his zeal 



182 CROWN OF LIFE 

and energy in rebuilding the Church after its destruction 
by fire in 1871 will always be kept in mind together with 
grateful recollections of his solace in griefs; his godly 
counsel in troubles; his encouragement in despair; his 
affectionate appeals to erring ones ; his admonition, advice 
and sympathy to all who were in 'sorrow, need, sickness 
or any other adversity' ; and especially his great interest 
in the training of the young; and care for the temporal 
and spiritual necessities of the poor." 22 



i Accounts of eye-witnesses. 

2 V. M., January 23, 1871. 

3 Roberts, op. cit., p. 19. 

4 Whitford, op. cit., p. 270. 

5 V. M., January 18, January 20, January 30, 1871. The minutes 
show that Bishop Atkinson attended the January 20 meeting. 

6 V. M., February 5, 1872. 

7 Ibid., January 12, 1871. A reply of appreciation is recorded 
January 30. 

8 Ibid., June 8, 1874. 

9 D. J., 1871. 
io Ibid., 1872. 
ii Ibid., 1874. 

12 P. R., 1874. 

13 D. J., 1875. 

14 V. M., December, 1871. 

15 Ibid., special note, dated May 23, 1875. 

16 Ibid., correspondence in those years published in the records. 

17 Ibid., December 4, 1876. 

18 Ibid., Note recorded Julv 18, 1877. 

19 Ibid., 1877. 

20 Whitford, op. cit., p. 265. 

21 Record of Wills, Craven County, Book F, pp. 109-16. 

22 V. M., 1893. Vol. 3, pp. 153-55. 



XLVII 

THE REV. CHARLES S. HALE 

The Rev. Charles Stuart Hale became rector of Christ 
Church in October, 1877. A native of New England, he 
came here from Buffalo, N. Y. 

That he was an outstanding clergyman is proved from 
a copy of the resolution sent here by the Secretary of the 
Standing Committee of the Diocese of Western New 
York, regretting the loss of his "faithful and efficient 
services" and praising his "high character, manly 
Christian course and clear unflinching adherence to 
church principles." 1 

One of the main accomplishments during his three and 
a half years here was the organization of the Altar Guild, 
composed of church leaders who worked for the extension 
of God's Kingdom in many, sundry ways. 

Formed early in 1878, the guild had John S. Long for 
its first warden; George E. Tinker, vice warden; Henry 
C. Pool, registrar; and John D. Hughes, treasurer. The 
group was reorganized in 1881 when the Rev. Van Winder 
Shields was rector. 2 

In 1878 Mr. Hale reported 234 communicants. For the 
Sunday School he listed 95 pupils, with twenty teachers 
and five officers. The parish school had forty-seven 
students. The church was said to be worth $35,000 and 
the chapel $3,000, with debts of $600. At that time the 
Bishop wrote that on a Palm Sunday visit here he had 
"observed with pleasure the marked progress of the 
church." 3 

Vestry minutes contain "exalted appreciation of his 
pious and devoted zeal" in referring to George H. Roberts 
as treasurer. Praise is also given to F. C. Roberts for his 
able service as secretary. They mention the renting of 
the "Memorial Chapel" in 1876 to Miss Kate Carraway 
and Prof. G. W. Neal for use as a high school. 



184 CROWN OF LIFE 

During the Summer of 1880 Mrs. Louise Weed Hale, 
wife of the rector, died in Asheville. White altar hang- 
ings for the church were given in her memory. 4 

That October Mr. Hale tendered his resignation. He 
explained that he felt physically unable to continue the 
duties, having had malaria during the entire time he had 
been here. The resignation became effective November 
28. With regret it was accepted by the vestrymen, who 
declared he had given "so much satisfaction to the con- 
gregation as well as benefit to the cause of religion and 
the advancement of the welfare of the church." 5 

Petitions signed by 133 members of the congregation 
urged the vestrymen to reconsider their acceptance of the 
resignation. The vestry did this, and Mr. Hale stayed on 
for several months. On March 3, 1881, he again resigned, 
effective after Easter, to accept a call to Trinity Church, 
Claremont, N. H. 

The vestry on January 16 of that year passed reso- 
lutions of respect for Bishop Atkinson, who had died 
January 4. They paid tribute to "his dignity, his great 
natural endowment, his sound learning, his eloquence, and 
logical power as a preacher, his executive ability, his 
boldness as a defender of the truth, his purity and 
elevation of character, his meekness and saintliness as a 
disciple and an apostle." 6 

Resolutions of appreciation were also passed for the 
Rev. James C. Atkinson, who was thanked for his frequent 
aid to this parish. He was leaving the diocese to go to 
Oregon. 7 



i V. M., October, 1877. 

2 V. M., 1878. Organization minute book. 

3D. J., 1878. 

4 V. M., 1880. 

5 Ibid. 

6 Ibid., 1881. 

'Ibid., March 9, 1881. 



XLVIII 

THE REV. VAN WINDER SHIELDS 

The Rev. Mr. Shields, then serving at Kittrell, N. C, 
was called to the local pulpit in 1881. He arrived April 
21, conducted services here on Sunday, April 24, then left 
the next day to bring his family to the city. 1 

During his eight years' stewardship he was greatly 
beloved for his character and admired for his work. He 
was a true friend to all in trouble or need. 

Including children, 292 members were listed for the 
church in 1883. By 1889 the number had grown to 305, 
including children. When revised, however, the lists 
showed only 227 active members. 2 

Late in December, 1885, vestrymen recommended that 
the church pews be made free. There had been difficulty 
in collecting the rental fees anyway. In a vote at a 
congregational meeting, 13 favored this step, six opposed 
it and two expressed willingness to be governed by the 
majority. These 21 votes were so few that the vestry 
decided to abandon their attempt for free seats. 3 

It was during this rectorate that the front porch was 
added to the church. The steeple was also completed, and 
a bell placed there. All were gifts. In 1886 an organ and 
a communion cup were presented to Grace Church, 
Trenton. 

Mr. Shields resigned his office in September, 1889. A 
committee was appointed by the vestry to ask him to re- 
consider, but he said his decision was final; so the 
resignation was accepted September 3, with this 
resolution : 

"Whereas, the pleasant relations existing for over eight 
years between the Rev. V. W. Shields and the members 
of Christ Church Parish must in the providence of God be 
sundered, we the vestry express in this official and 
emphatic manner our profound regret at this unexpected 
event, and tender to Mr. Shields and his family our cordial 
appreciation and sympathy, and pray that in their new 



186 CROWN OF LIFE 

field of labor they may enjoy a large measure of useful- 
ness and of that peace which 'passeth understanding'." 4 

From here Mr. Shields went to Jacksonville, Fla., where 
he was rector of St. John's Church until 1924 and rector 
emeritus until his death there May 13, 1927. He was a 
native of Rokeby Plantation in Jefferson County, Miss., 
born there July 3, 1849, so lived to be almost 78 years of 
age. 

Organization of the Diocese of East Carolina had been 
perfected here at Christ Church on December 12 and 13, 
1883, during Mr. Shield's ministry. This was the second 
diocese to be formed here, a unique record for the parish. 5 

For a number of years Bishop Atkinson had advocated 
a division of North Carolina into two dioceses. After his 
death, this plan was voted May 10-14, 1882, at a regular 
meeting of the Diocese of North Carolina at Tarboro. 
Permission to form the new diocese was granted October 
9, 1883, by the General Convention at Philadelphia. 

The Rt. Rev. Theodore Benedict Lyman, D. D., who had 
succeeded the late Bishop Atkinson after having served 
as assistant Bishop of North Carolina, called the conven- 
tion of the new diocese to order. After divine service and 
communion, the Rev. Dr. Watson, former local rector, 
then of Wilmington, was elected convention president; 
and the Rev. Nathaniel Harding, secretary- Many names 
were suggested for the new diocese, "East Carolina" 
being chosen. 

Dr. Watson was selected as the first Bishop. He was 
consecrated April 17, 1884, in St. James Church, Wilming- 
ton, of which he had been rector for 21 years. The 
consecrator was a native Wilmingtonian, the Rt. Rev. 
William Mercer Green, Bishop of Mississippi. He was 
assisted by Bishop Lyman of North Carolina and Bishop 
Howe of South Carolina. In his first Episcopal address 
the new Bishop of the new diocese stressed unity of 
interest, saying the growth of each parish was necessary 
for the best results in all the other churches as well as in 
the diocese, the ecclesiastical unit. 

Bishop Lyman continued to serve the Diocese of North 
Carolina until his death in 1893, when he was followed by 



THE REV. VAN WINDER SHIELDS 187 

the late Rt. Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, in turn suc- 
ceeded by the present bishop, the Rt. Rev. E. A. Penick. 
Bishop Lyman, born in Massachusetts in 1815 and 
educated at Hamilton College and the General Theological 
Seminary, had served in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Italy, 
California and elsewhere before coming to North Carolina 
to assist Bishop Atkinson for the last eight years of the 
latter's life. From 1783 to 1883 Episcopal clergymen 
increased from 50 to 76 in North Carolina and communi- 
cants from 3,742 to 5,889. 6 

At a joint convention of the Dioceses of North Carolina 
and East Carolina held in May, 1890, at Tarboro, the 
historic communion service of Christ Church was used. 7 
By then there were reported to be 85 Episcopal clergymen 
in this State, with 7,500 communicants, of whom 4,400 
were in the North Carolina Diocese and 3,100 in the East 
Carolina Diocese. 8 



i V. M., April, 1881. 

2 P. R. 

3 V. M., 1885. Vol. 3, pp. 29-33. (Pages in this third extant hook 
of vestry minutes are numbered consecutively, so may be referred to 
exactly from now on. The first book of minutes of the vestry, now 
in possession of the church, begins May 7, 1830, and extends to the 
time of the War Between the States. The second book begins April 
24, 1866, and lasts through April 7, 1884. Volume 3 begins May 2, 
1884, and goes to December 8, 1902. Volume 4 covers February 2, 
1903, to February 7, 1921. Volume 5, from May 25, 1921, to December 
13,1938. Volume 6, from then on.) 

4 V. M., Vol. 3, p. 55. 

5 Information about this meeting is taken from articles by Judge 
Francis D. Winston, of Windsor, and Mrs. A. M. Waddell, of Wil- 
mington, published in the New Bern Sun-Journal Jubilee Edition, 
May 17, 1933. 

6 Marshall, op. cit., p. 343, et passim. 

7 Cheshire, Sketches, "The Joint Centennial Convention," p. 12. 
s Marshall, op. cit., p. 343. 



XLIX 

THE REV. T. M. N. GEORGE 

Mr. Shields' resignation was to become effective the 
first Sunday in Advent, 1889, so well before that time the 
vestry instructed Secretary E. K. Bishop to notify Bishop 
Watson and Junior Warden George H. Roberts to open a 
correspondence in regard to procuring a new rector. 

At an early special meeting it was voted to extend a 
call to the Rev. Thomas Mordint Nelson George, of 
Durham. Mr. Roberts, by then named Senior Warden to 
succeed the late Maj. John Hughes, was requested to write 
him. Judge Henry R. Bryan was named Junior Warden 
succeeding Mr. Roberts. 

The acceptance of Mr. George, written October 12, was 
read to the vestry November 4, his rectorship to begin 
January 1, 1890. Plans were at once set in motion towards 
obtaining a new rectory. 1 

The old rectory on George Street was sold to Sam Duffy 
for $1,500." Meanwhile, a house was rented on Broad 
Street. In April, 1891, after Mr. George and his family 
had been residing here for some time, a site on Pollock 
Street, to the east of the church, was approved for a new 
rectory, and plans for the proposed dwelling were drawn 
by Architect Herbert Simpson. 3 

Bishop Watson approved this location. But many 
members of the parish objected to putting a rectory "on 
any part of the church yard." A petition to that effect 
was signed by twenty-eight members, and others also 
expressed opposition. Hence, a lot on the west side of 
Craven Street, adjoining the church property, was bought 
from the New Bern Academy. 4 

Contributions were collected for the purpose, and the 
two-story frame rectory was built there. Several years 
later the Federal Government erected a postoffice on the 
adjoining corner lot. That building is now the City Hall. 
The rectory has been moved to its neighboring lot to the 
northward. 



THE REV. T. M. N. GEORGE 189 

During the school year of 1891 it was reported that 23 
boys and 17 girls attended the parish school, their terms 
ranging from four to 119 days. Mrs. Hannah Harrison, 
a Griffin School girl, was then principal. 5 The Griffin 
School, long operated here, was considered practically an 
Episcopal institution, so closely associated was it with the 
church. 

In March, 1895, the vestry met to confirm the sale of 
the Mission Chapel, "the old Palace outbuilding," by the 
Christ Church Relief Society to Francis S. Duffy for 
$1,900. A committee was named to investigate the cost 
of a new chapel and school. 6 The parish school was 
moved from the Palace wing to two rooms elsewhere, but 
the chapel was still used temporarily for a Sunday School. 

Erection of a new chapel was begun by May on a lot 
situated on the south side of Pollock Street, west of Burn, 
a part of the property bequeathed to the Diocese by Mr. 
Forbes and lent to the parish without charge by the 
Diocese. Mrs. Margaret D. Nelson donated the new 
structure and presented the belfry and bell. 7 Upon its 
completion, it was named All Saints Chapel, and services 
were long held there regularly. It is now used as a 
nursery school for underprivileged children of that part 
of town. Bishop Thomas C. Darst deconsecrated the 
structure. 

Many other memorials were presented to the church 
and chapel at that period. Women of the parish requested 
and received permission to erect an iron fence at their 
own expense, to replace the wooden fence. Mrs. Lucretia 
Guion Dunn was treasurer for the women's committee. 

Mrs. Mary McKinlay Nash, Graham Daves, Jane 
Graham Hughes and Jennie Daves Hughes offered in 
memory of their sister and aunt, Mrs. Ann Daves McLean, 
the sum of $500, if efforts were made to wipe out the 
church's floating debt and try to prevent its repetition. 8 

As early as 1893 there had been mention of the needs 
for a parish house. On February 17, 1903, a special 
session of the vestry was called to discuss the possibility 
of procuring such a building. 9 



190 CROWN OF LIFE 

A motion was passed to try to raise $10,000, half for a 
parish house and the remainder for church improvements. 
On a committee for this purpose were named Mrs. Nelson, 
Mrs. George H. Roberts, Mrs. Mary D. Windley, Mrs. 
Charles Duffy, Miss Mary Oliver, E. H. Meadows, J. A. 
Bryan, E. K. Bishop, Mark Disosway and M. deW. Steven- 
son. For a building committee were appointed Messrs. 
Roberts, Bryan and Meadows. 

The next month drawings of the proposed parish house 
were submitted by Architect Simpson. 10 Progress was 
reported slowly thereafter, as construction was under- 
taken. In November, 1904, the vestrymen were notified 
that the work had been stopped on account of lack of 
funds. 11 It was completed later. 12 The church was also 
renovated and rearranged on the interior. The organ was 
moved from the gallery to the east front of the church, 
and the chancel was also otherwise re-equipped. 13 

Mr. George was ill in a Boston hospital during the last 
part of 1904, having been taken sick there while attending 
the General Convention. 14 On May 2, 1905, he tendered 
his resignation, to accept a call to St. James Church, 
Marietta, Ga., because his health necessitated a change 
of climate. The resignation became effective the first 
Sunday in June. 

Resolutions were adopted by the vestry, in tribute to 
the rector: "His piety and devotion to duty will be long 
remembered in this Parish, and his Kindness and gentle- 
ness will be cherished by all." 15 

Much work was accomplished in the parish during his 
rectorship of more than fifteen years. Besides the build- 
ing programs for the church, chapel and parish house, a 
Girls Friendly Society was organized here by Mr. George 
May 1, 1904. 16 A vested choir was first formed here also 
in that year. Three original members still assisted with 
the church music in 1940, Mrs. Garrason A. Farrow, for 
many recent years organist; Mrs. C. T. Ward and Miss 
Sadie Whitehurst. 

The Rev. Mr. George had been born in Marietta March 
25, 1858, and thus returned to his native city. He was 
the son of a minister, and had two brothers in the 



THE REV. T. M. N. GEORGE 191 

ministry. Not only by all ages and classes of his own 
church was he beloved, but also by members of all 
denominations. 

After his death in February, 1908, a memorial service 
was held here during a meeting of the Wilmington Con- 
vocation. A tribute to him by the rector at that time, the 
Rev. J. H. Brown quoted: "Mark the perfect and behold 
the upright man, for the end of that man is peace." 17 



IV. M., 1889. 

2 V. M., Vol. 3, pp. 61-62. 

3 Ibid., 87-92. 

4 Ibid., 96-100. 

5 Ibid., 99, 125. 

6 Ibid., 188. 

1 1bid., 195-96, 266. 

8 Ibid., 252. 

9 Ibid., Vol. 4, pp. 4-5. 
io Ibid., 6. 

ii Ibid., 22. 

12 Ibid., 28-29, 34. 

is ibid., 26-27. 

14 Ibid., 22-23. 

15 Ibid., 30-33. 

is Roberts, op. cit., p. 23. 
17 Ibid., p. 24. 



THE REV. L G. H. WILLIAMS 

The Rev. L. G. H. Williams, of Americus, Ga., accepted 
a call to the Christ Church rectorate in the Fall of 1905. 
He met with the vestry for the first time on November 6. 1 

As their first act, the vestrymen turned over to the 
rector the completion of the parish house. This task the 
newcomer undertook with characteristic energy and 
interest, and it was used that Christmas for the annual 
Christmas tree exercises of the Sunday School. 2 

At a meeting of the parish December 4 the rector 
requested that the number of vestrymen be increased 
from seven to nine, and this was done. 3 When the vestry- 
men organized later that month, Mr. Roberts was renamed 
Senior Warden; Judge Bryan, re-elected Junior Warden; 
Charles L. Stevens, clerk; and John R. B. Carraway, 
re-elected treasurer. 4 

Because of his ill health, Mr. Williams was granted a 
leave of absence between August and October, 1906. 5 
Following his return, at the annual parish supper in" 
December, he reported many achievements, including the 
completion of the parish house. He warned against the 
danger of becoming "too well satisfied," for he declared 
that plenty of work remained for all. As for himself, he 
did his part earnestly, working especially among the poor 
of the entire city. 6 

The following October, in 1907, after two years' service, 
Mr. Williams resigned as rector, effective in December, 
due to the climatic conditions which were not satisfactory 
for his health or that of his family. The vestry went on 
record in sympathy with the minister because of the ill- 
ness of his wife, and accepted his resignation with regret. 7 

Bishop Robert Strange, who had succeeded the late 
Bishop Watson, made suggestions as to Mr. Williams' 
successor here; and on January 10, 1908, met here with 
the vestry. A call was then extended to the Rev. John 
H. Brown, of Fernandina, Fla. 8 



' 




Christ Church Altar 



THE REV. L. G. H. WILLIAMS 193 

Bishop Robert Strange 

The Rt. Rev. Dr. Strange had been born in Wilmington 
December 6, 1857. His father was Col. Robert Strange, 
a prominent lawyer, who had served with distinction in 
the Confederate Army. His mother was Carolina Wright, 
daughter of Dr. Thomas H. Wright, prominent at Wil- 
mington and long identified with St. James Church. 

After attending the Horner and Graves school at Hills- 
boro, he was graduated at the University of North 
Carolina in the Class of 1879. He was confirmed by 
Bishop Atkinson November 20, 1877 ; and in 1880 applied 
as a candidate for Holy Orders in the Diocese of North 
Carolina. Three years later he went to Brunswick 
County, Virginia, as a catechist and lay missionary. 

When Dr. Watson, his former rector, became the first 
Bishop of the new Diocese of East Carolina, Strange 
attended the consecration in St. James Church. Three 
days afterwards, Sunday, April 20, 1884, he was ordained 
to the diaconate there by Bishop Watson. 

Following a trip to Europe, Mr. Strange was called to 
the Church of the Good Shepherd at Raleigh. There on 
November 15, 1885, he was advanced to the priesthood by 
Bishop Lyman. For more than a year he served in the 
State Capital, then accepted a call to his mother church 
at Wilmington. While rector there at St. James from 
1887 to 1900, he was given a degree of Doctor of Divinity 
by the University of North Carolina. 

For four years he served as rector of St. Paul's Church, 
Richmond. Then he was named the second Bishop of the 
Diocese of East Carolina. He was consecrated at St. 
James Church on All Saints Day in 1904. The main 
sermon of the occasion was preached by Bishop Randolph 
of Southern Virginia. For a decade he labored success- 
fully through the Diocese. He died August 23, 1914. His 
body was also interred under the chancel at St. James 
Church. 



i V. M., Vol. 4, p. 38. 

2 Roberts, op. cit., pp. 24-25. 



194 CROWN OF LIFE 

3 V. M., Vol. 4, p. 39. 

ilhid., 41. 

5 Ibid., 49. 

sibid., 52. 

7 IMd., 59-60. 

&IMd., 67. 



LI 

THE REV. JOHN H. BROWN 

Mr. Brown accepted the local call, and began a two-year 
rectorate in March, 1908. x Before his arrival, the rectory- 
was renovated. 2 

As one of the most important public steps ever taken 
by the congregation, the church pews were made free in 
1910, instead of being rented as they had been previously. 
This change had been suggested in 1885, and again in 
1894 and 1898, without definite results. The vestry ap- 
proved such a plan in 1909, and the next month their 
recommendation was accepted by the membership at a 
parish meeting on January 17, 1910. 3 

The Carolina Churchman was started in 1909, by 
merging The Mission Herald and The Messenger of Hope ; 
and Mr. Brown served capably as assistant editor. He 
was a trustee of the University of the South at Sewanee, 
Tenn. ; and also acted as Chairman and Field Secretary of 
the East Carolina Sunday School Commission. 4 

Many accomplishments along varied lines were reported 
for those years. The altar in the parish house was pre- 
sented to the Episcopal mission at Burgaw. Church 
attendance here was reported to be good, the rector 
preaching excellent sermons and conducting the rituals in 
unusually impressive and inspiring manner. 

In May, 1910, Mr. Brown resigned the local post to 
accept a call to Christ Church, Pensacola, Fla. A reso- 
lution passed by the vestry praised him as "an able 
preacher of the gospel and a learned theologian," and 
expressed gratitude for "the good work that has been 
accomplished by Mr. Brown in the parish." 5 

During that Summer New Bern staged one of the most 
elaborate celebrations in State history, in a week's 
programs commemorating the bi-centennial of the found- 
ing of the city in 1710. The North Carolina State 
Firemen's Association held the annual convention and 



196 CROWN OF LIFE 

tournament here at the same time, adding to the enter- 
tainment events that drew thousands of people. 



i v. M., Vol. 4, p. 69. 

2 Ibid., 68. 

3 Ibid., 41, 86. Supra, p. 185. 

4 Roberts, op. cit., p. 25. 

5 V. M., May 18, 1910, Vol. 4, pp. 95-96. 



Lll 

THE REV. B. F. HUSKE 

An invitation was sent in July, 1910, to the Rev. 
Bartholomew F. Huske, of St. Paul's Church, Greenville, 
originally from Fayetteville, to succeed Mr. Brown as local 
rector October l. 1 This call was accepted, and for seven 
years he served the parish. 

A decade prior to the passage of the equal suffrage 
amendment to the Federal Constitution to give women 
the ballot politically, which went into effect August 26, 
1920, it was voted here at a parish meeting on November 
28, 1910, to follow "an old-time custom" in allowing "such 
ladies as were contributors to the church to be allowed to 
cast ballots" for vestrymen. 2 

The next year, however, the vestry decided that future 
elections should be conducted under the church canons 
which then required that voters should be baptized male 
adults in special registrations. 3 That canon was changed 
by 1913. 4 In 1912 the number of vestrymen was increased 
again, this time from nine to twelve. 5 

Grace Chapel was opened in Riverside during 1913. The 
lot was donated by William Dunn, Sr. Materials were 
given by lumber men and building supply dealers. 6 It 
was finally dismantled in 1919, after comparatively short 
service. 

When the Episcopalians before that year had discon- 
tinued their Sunday School in that section of the city, the 
Riverside Methodist Sunday School was permitted to use 
their chapel. After the Riverside Methodists decided to 
build a new church, the old structure was moved to 
Grantham on the Morehead City road, where for some 
time it has been used by the Presbyterians. 

Repairs to the church, with construction of a recess 
chancel, were authorized by the vestry in 1913. 7 Messrs. 
Roberts, Bishop, and Thomas D. Warren were named on 
a committee for the purpose. 8 William W. Griffin was 
elected treasurer for a church improvement fund. 9 The 



198 CROWN OF LIFE 

Rev. J. N. Bynum was engaged to assist with local mission 
work during that Summer. 10 

Upon motion of Mr. Bishop, an Every Member Canvass 
was held in December, 1914, to increase church funds and 
raise money for missions. This started an annual custom, 
since then followed by other local churches. 11 Resolutions 
of respect were adopted for the late Capt. Wentworth S. 
Simmons, long a vestryman and church official. 12 

The Diocesan Council was held at New Bern in the 
Spring of 1915. 13 

On April 8, 1917, a special meeting of the vestry was 
held with the rector, with reference to his departure for 
service as Chaplain of the North Carolina Naval Reserves, 
upon entry of the United States in the World War. He 
was allowed an indefinite leave of absence. 14 

During his service here a Woman's Auxiliary and a 
Junior Auxiliary were formed among the members of All 
Saints Chapel, with the aid of the Christ Church women. 
A sewing and cooking school were also started. 15 

The centennial anniversary celebration of the organi- 
zation of the Diocese of North Carolina here in 1817 was 
held in Christ Church on May 17, 1917. Three Bishops 
were present for the ceremony — Bishop Joseph B. 
Cheshire of Raleigh ; Bishop Junius M. Horner, of Ashe- 
ville; and Bishop Thomas C. Darst, of Wilmington, who 
had succeeded Bishop Strange in the Diocese of East 
Carolina. 16 

A handsome bronze tablet was unveiled as a gift to 
Christ Church from the two dioceses and the missionary 
district of Asheville. It still has an honored place on the 
west wall near the baptismal font. Its inscription begins : 

"To the glory of God and in commemoration of the 
100th anniversary of the organization of the Diocese of 
North Carolina." 

Names of the nine Episcopalians who met in New Bern 
and organized the first Diocese of North Carolina in 1817 
are also on the tablet : the Rev. Bethel Judd, Fayetteville, 
president ; the Rev. Adam Empie, Wilmington, secretary ; 
the Rev. Jehu Curtis Clay, of New Bern ; John Rutherford 
London and Marsden Campbell, of Wilmington; John 



THE REV. B. F. HUSKE 199 

Stanly and John Spence West, of New Bern; Josiah 
Collins, Edenton ; and John Winslow, Fayetteville. 

The Rev. Guy H. Madara was named acting rector of 
the parish during the Fall of 1917, Mr. Huske resigning 
here to remain in the service of the country as a Chaplain 
in the regular Navy. The question of a permanent suc- 
cessor was postponed until the visit of Bishop Darst. 17 

Following his retirement from the Navy, as a Lieu- 
tenant-Commander, after service on the seas and as 
assistant chaplain at the United States Naval Academy 
at Annapolis, Md., Dr. Huske visited New Bern on various 
occasions. He still ranked as an officer in the Naval 
Reserves, and held a degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

For some years after his naval service he was rector 
of St. Mary's Church, Kinston, then maintained his head- 
quarters and home in his native city of Fayetteville, while 
serving as rector of Grace Church, Whiteville, and Trinity 
Church, Lumberton. 



i V. M., Vol. 4, p. 93. 

2 Ibid., 102. 

3 Ibid., 118. 

4 Church Histories. 

5 V. M., Vol. 4, pp. 134-35. 

6 Ibid., 138, 141. 
TIbid., 143. 
»Ibid., 146. 

9 Ibid., 147. 
io Ibid., 143, 145. 

11 Ibid., 162-63. 

12 Ibid., 165. 

13 Ibid., 167. 

14 Ibid., 201. 

15 Roberts, op. cit., p. 26. 

16 V. M., Vol. 4, p. 204. New Bern Sun-Journal files, May, 1917. 

17 V. M., Vol. 4, pp. 207, 208, 212-13. 



Lilt 

THE REV. DANIEL G. MACKINNON 

The Rev. Daniel G. MacKinnon, S. T. D., accepted the 
rectorship of this parish in October, 1917, and arrived 
during December from St. Bartholomew's parish, Phila- 
delphia. 1 Among his earlier charges was a rectorate "at 
Kansas City. 

At his first meeting with the parishioners, vestrymen 
agreed to support him in the church school by attending 
his Bible class on Sunday mornings. 2 

During his entire stay here, he did much work among 
the men of the congregation, drawing them to the Sunday 
night services and holding special suppers for them from 
time to time. The Brotherhood of St. Andrew was 
fostered. 3 

When the Rotary Club was organized in 1920 the parish 
house was used for the men members, and since then has 
been the main meeting place for their supper sessions, 
women of the church preparing and serving the suppers. 
For some time recently Mrs. H. C. Lumsden has been in 
general charge. The kitchen and serving room have been 
much improved in space, arrangement and equipment. 

In March, 1919, Mr. Bishop was again elected Junior 
Warden, 4 to succeed the late Judge Bryan, who had served 
in this capacity for many years until his death and who 
was warmly praised in vestry resolutions. 5 

Mr. Roberts passed away in 1922, after service as a 
vestryman for 48 years and Senior Warden for 33 years. 
Appropriate tributes were offered to his memory by the 
vestry. 6 

Named April 3, 1922, to succeed Mr. Roberts as Senior 
Warden, Mr. Bishop has held that office ever since. J. G. 
Dunn, Sr., long a member of the vestry with lengthy 
service as treasurer, succeeded Mr. Bishop as Junior 
Warden. 7 When he became ineligible for re-election to 
the vestry, Charles H. Stith became Junior Warden; and 



THE REV. DANIEL G. M'KINNON 201 

later Frank F. Fagan was named, serving at the present 
time. 

George H. Roberts, Jr., who has long served on the 
vestry, being first named the month before his father's 
death, 8 was elected secretary or clerk, upon the removal 
of W. G. Boyd from the city after long and efficient secre- 
tarial service. 9 He was followed shortly as clerk by J. E. 
Boswell, who was named to the vestry in Mr. Boyd's 
place. J. C. Bagg was later elected clerk, then L. A. 
Stith, and J. Haywood Jones. J. G. Dunn, Jr., has for 
some time served as treasurer, following his father, J. G. 
Dunn, Sr., and J. E. Boswell. 

The matter of building an extension to the parish house 
for needed church school purposes was considered in 
1923 10 and often later discussed ; but the addition was not 
made possible until 1938. n Church windows were re- 
touched during Dr. MacKinnon's rectorate, with financial 
aid from the women's groups. 12 Many improvements in 
the church yard were made under the direction of Mrs. 
J. Vernon Blades. 13 

Just as the Christ Church bell was first to ring in the 
news of the signing of the World War Armistice 
November 11, 1918, with Dr. MacKinnon holding a 
thanksgiving and prayer service, so the parish house was 
the first public door opened to the hungry and suffering 
fire victims after the disastrous fire on December 1, 1922, 
which burned forty blocks, chiefly in Negro residential 
sections, causing approximately $1,000,000 damage and 
leaving 1,000 persons homeless. 

St. Cyprian's Church also did valiant work during the 
disaster, as did its rector, the Rev. R. I. Johnson. It was 
temporarily converted into a Negro emergency hospital. 
A baby born there was named St. Cyprian Emergency 
Dillahunt. The dire need for a local Negro hospital then 
became so urgent that efforts in that direction were 
undertaken, resulting successfully fifteen years after- 
wards. 14 

Patriotism was stressed during Dr. MacKinnon's 
ministry. He had started his work here during the World 
War, and the American Flag was given an important 



202 CROWN OF LIFE 

place in the church. He also emphasized form and ritual ; 
and his scholarly sermons gave much information about 
church history, symbolism, the Trinity, Holy Communion 
and other phases of worship. 

Mission work was pushed through this region under his 
guidance. The Rev. J. Mitchell Taylor was engaged as 
his assistant along this line. Mr. Taylor carried on the 
work particularly at the Vanceboro church, then a mission 
of the parish. 

In recent years missions have been sponsored at 
Vanceboro, Trenton, Oriental, Pollocksville and Jasper. 
None is being conducted at present. The Vanceboro 
church now has its own rector and organization. The 
Trenton church is operated under the Kinston parish, and 
the Pollocksville membership has been transferred there. 
The Oriental church was burned. The Jasper mission, 
where the interest had decreased, was sold a few years 
ago to the Disciples of Christ, who have moved the church 
across the highway and renovated and beautified it as a 
Sunday School building. 

During April, 1925, after more than seven years here, 
Dr. MacKinnon resigned. The vestry accepted his request 
with regret, calling attention to the "high-tone, dignified 
manner in which the services have been conducted and 
the untiring efforts of Dr. MacKinnon to increase the 
spiritual welfare of his people." 15 

From New Bern he left June 3 for Pleasantville, N. J., 
near Atlantic City, where he had been elected rector of 
St. Mark's parish. For some years he and Mrs. Mac- 
Kinnon had been spending the Summers in that vicinity, 
so had numerous friends there. After fruitful service, he 
retired from the active ministry, and he and his wife 
resided at Marshfield Hills, N. J. Mrs. MacKinnon died 
in October, 1940. 



i V. M., Vol. 4, pp. 209, 210, 214, 216. 

2 ibid., 217. 

3 Ibid., 223; Vol. 5, p. 46. 

iIMd., March 3, 1919, Vol. 4, p. 234. 

5 Ibid., 234-35, 237. 

a Ibid., Vol. 5, pp. 7, 12-13. 



THE REV. DANIEL G. M'KINNON 203 



7 Ibid., 10-11. 

8 Ibid., 9. 

9 Ibid., 27. 
lo/ftid., 31-32. 
ii Infra, p. 210. 

12 V. M., Vol. 5, pp. 53, 55, 98. 
is ibid., 52. 

14 Infra, p. 214. 

15 V. M., Vol. 5, pp. 58-59. 



LIV 

THE REV. GUY H. MADARA 

The Rev. Guy H. Madara, who had acted temporarily 
as rector here during the Autumn of 1917, following 
missionary work in Alaska, returned to New Bern on 
February 2, 1926, to begin a regular pastorate. 1 

For two months before his arrival the Rev. Richard B. 
Doherty, an able young minister from New York, had 
substituted here. The parish had been without a regular 
rector since Dr. MacKinnon had departed the preceding 
June. 

Since 1918 the Rev. Mr. Madara had served as canon 
missioner for the Diocese of Newark in New Jersey. 
During the year before his local call he had also had 
charge of the parish at Mountain Lakes, N. J. He was a 
graduate of the Philadelphia Divinity School. 

Isaac E. Brooks, of this city, was certified by the vestry 
in 1927 as a worthy candidate for Holy Orders. 2 In time 
he was duly ordained, and for some time held a rectorate 
at Philadelphia. 

The next year the Rev. Jean A. Vache, pastor of a 
Presbyterian chapel in Ghent, transferred his affiliation to 
the Episcopal church, and was recommended by the vestry 
for ordination. 3 Following service in East Carolina, he 
has for some years been rector of St. Andrew's Church 
in Greensboro. 

As an important innovation, an acoustic system was 
installed in the church, without expense to the parish. 

When it was first planned to enlarge the city postoffice, 
then on Pollock and Craven Streets, the Federal Govern- 
ment in 1927 asked to buy the adjoining rectory lot on 
Craven Street. The vestrymen agreed to sell it for 
$20,000, and in 1929 the sale was consummated at that 
price. Church notes were thereupon paid off, and the 
balance was deposited on savings accounts in local banks, 
which closed the next year. 4 



THE REV. GUY H. MADARA 205 

The Government afterwards decided not to enlarge its 
old building but to sell it to the city for a City Hall and 
to erect a new Federal Building on Middle and New 
Streets. Accordingly, instead of building a new rectory 
as long contemplated, the veslry bought the adjoining 
Clark lot on Craven Street and moved the old rectory 
there, completely renovating it both inside and out in 
1935. 

During the year 1929 the vestry and parish voted to 
reduce the number of vestrymen from twelve back to nine 
again; and the rotation system was inaugurated, with 
three new members elected each year, to serve for only 
three years. 5 In March, 1933, this rule was amended so 
that no member except the Senior Warden could be re- 
elected for at least one year after the expiration of a 
term. 6 

Beloved for his indefatigable work among the poorer 
citizens of the entire town and surrounding sections, Mr. 
Madara especially fostered the activities at the church 
missions. In this he was supported by the vestrymen. 
A general church canvass was also sponsored here during 
his rectorate. 

Much interest was taken in the women's work, and the 
rector was instrumental in starting the long-active 
Woman's Auxiliary on a new plan of circle or chapter 
divisions that since then has been successfully followed. 
Throughout the entire history of the church the women 
have always been active and helpful, and their organi- 
zations have accomplished many worthwhile things for 
the parish. 

Not confining his interests to church but taking 
prominent roles in civic and community affairs, Mr. 
Madara was a leader in the Rotary Club, and served 
capably as its president. 

On All Saints Day in 1930 a unique new altar cloth was 
dedicated for use in the church. 7 This had been completed 
after seven months' work by Miss Elizabeth Griffin, who 
left New Bern the next March for Manila and has since 
served as treasurer of the Missionary District of the 
Philippine Islands. 



206 CROWN OF LIFE 

This lovely cloth still ranks as one of only three of the 
kind in the country, the other two being at the Denver 
Cathedral and the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in 
New York City. Measuring 120 inches in length and 24 
inches in width, it consists of tiny pieces of beautiful 
laces contributed by 72 donors. The laces came from 
many different parts of the world, most of them being 
given as memorials to departed relatives or friends. 

The corporal cloth and chalice veil were made later by 
Mrs. D. L. Ward, Sr., and the credence cloth was made by 
Mrs. H. C. Lumsden, to go with the altar or fair cloth. 
These last three were dedicated on All Saints Day in 1932 
in memory of Mrs. Katharine Brayshaw, wife of the next 
rector. Probably no church in the nation has more 
valuable and exquisite communion sets. 

Mr. Madara resigned as the local rector in November, 
1930, to take effect December 31. 8 A letter of regret was 
written him by the vestry. 9 

From headquarters at Rochester, N. Y., he did mis- 
sionary work for the Church Extension Board. Then he 
assumed charge of a parish at Hammondsport, N. Y. For 
some time recently he has been a Chaplain in the Army, 
again having his home and headquarters in Rochester. 
During the Fall of 1940 he was promoted to the rank of 
Major. Although unable to return here often from New 
York State, he has kept in close touch with his many 
local friends. 



i V. M., Vol. 5, p. 72. New Bern Sun-Journal files, for the first 
part of February, 1926. 

2 V. M., Vol. 5, pp. 100, 139. 

3 Ibid., 132. 

Ubid., 124, 127, 129, 149-50. 

5 Ibid., 159. 

sibid., March, 1933, p. 208; also repeated May, 1934, Vol. 5, p. 217. 

7 Ibid., pp. 182-83. 

8 Ibid., 181. 

9 Ibid., 186. 



LV 

THE REV. I. del. BRAYSHAW 

A call to the Rev. Ilbert deLacy Brayshaw, assistant 
rector of St. James Church, Wilmington, was extended 
by Christ Church vestry. It was accepted, and Mr. Bray- 
shaw began his local work September 1, 1931. 1 

All Saints Chapel was closed that November. 2 Some of 
its furnishings were given to missions. In 1938 the vestry 
agreed to permit its use as a nursery school, at the request 
of Mrs. Frank W. Hughes, the prime mover in this com- 
munity project for the welfare of under-privileged 
children in the Long Wharf section of town. The chapel 
was then deconsecrated. 

Through the financial aid and under the direction of 
Senior Warden Bishop and with the advice of Mrs. Richard 
N. Duffy and others as to decorations, the parish house 
was renovated in 1933. The vestry expressed thanks to 
Mr. Bishop and Mrs. Duffy. 3 The next year plans were 
revived for a church school addition, but it was not until 
1938 that this was finally achieved. 4 

On May 17-18, 1933, the Golden Jubilee anniversary of 
the organization of the Diocese of East Carolina here was 
celebrated at Christ Church. Mr. Brayshaw was general 
chairman for the programs, and there was a large atten- 
dance of clergy and lay visitors from all parts of the 
region. 

Near the previous marker in commemoration of the 
founding of the earlier Diocese of North Carolina here, a 
tablet was unveiled to mark the first convention for the 
organization of the Diocese of East Carolina here Decem- 
ber 12 and 13, 1883. This had been bought with contri- 
butions raised under the direction of the Rev. Mr. Huske, 
then of Kinston, as chairman of a special committee for 
the purpose. 

The inscription on this tablet reads : "To the glory of 
God, in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the 
organization of the Diocese of East Carolina, with 



208 CROWN OF LIFE 

reverent gratitude for abundant blessings and divine 
mercies bestowed upon this diocese through fifty years of 
progress. This tablet is erected at the fiftieth annual 
convention of the diocese, May 17, 1933." 

Women delegates were received and seated at this 
convention for the first time in the history of the diocese. 
Under former canons, only male members were eligible 
for election as official delegates. The previous year the 
conventions for men and women had been separated, and 
this was the first year that the two had been held at 
different times. 

Bishop Darst read a proposed amendment to the canons, 
whereby women would be permitted to serve as official 
delegates to the General Convention. The proposal that 
women be privileged to serve on vestries was also dis- 
cussed, but final action was deferred. 5 It was approved 
the following year by the General Convention, and made 
effective by diocesan acceptance. 

Dr. R. B. Drane, retired rector of St. Paul's historic 
parish of Edenton, who for many years had served as 
president of the diocesan conventions, at first declined 
the honor at this 1933 gathering here, due to his physical 
condition, but he was prevailed upon to accept his 
unanimous election to the position. 6 

Dr. Drane was one of the three convention honor guests 
who had attended the organization gathering fifty years 
before, the other two being Judge Francis D. Winston, of 
Windsor, and N. W. Taylor, of Beaufort. The other three 
survivors were unable to be here : the Rev. N. C. Hughes, 
of Henderson; the Rev. Armand de Rossett, retired, of 
Baltimore ; and the Rev. H. S. McDuffie, Negro clergyman, 
then retired, of Philadelphia. 7 

The hurricane of September, 1933, did considerable 
damage to the church property and trees. The buildings 
were quickly repaired, but the trees and shrubs were not 
so easily replaced. Church members and officers did 
much relief work for hurricane disaster sufferers of the 
section. 

Mrs. Brayshaw, wife of the rector, died in New Bern 
during his service here. He suffered a stroke of paralysis 




The Rev. Charles E. Williams 




The Rt. Rev. Thomas C. Darst 



THE REV. I. D'L. BRAYSHAW 209 

some time afterwards while at Washington, N. C, on 
January 8, 1934. 8 For several months he was treated at 
St. Luke's hospital here and at a hospital near Washing- 
ton, D. C. He died June 29 at the home of a brother, 
the Rev. William Brayshaw, in Smithfield, Va., at the age 
of 42. 9 

A native of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, he had held 
rectorates in West Virginia and South Carolina, including 
Orangeburg and Camden, before going to Wilmington and 
thence coming to New Bern. He also served as a Chaplain 
in the National Guard, and went on his regiment's en- 
campments while he was here. As a preacher he was 
forceful and eloquent, and as a pastor he was greatly 
beloved. His untimely demise was sincerely regretted 
by many friends and acquaintances. 



i V. M., Vol. 5, pp. 190-91. New Bern Sun-Journal files for the 
first part of September, 1931. 

2 V. M., Vol. 5, p. 193. 

3 Ibid., 211. 

4 Ibid., 219. Supra, p. 201. Infra, 210. 

5 New Bern Sun-Journal, May 17, 1933. 

6 Ibid. 

7 Ibid. 

8 V. M., Vol. 5, p. 214. 

9 New Bern Sun-Journal, June 29, 1934. 



LVI 

THE REV. CHARLES E. WILLIAMS 

Through Bishop Darst, the vestry engaged the Rev. 
Charles E. Williams, who was doing notable work in the 
Creswell area, to act as supply rector for the Lenten and 
Easter season of 1934 during the incapacity of Mr. 
Brayshaw. 1 

Mr. Williams was already well known here, having 
spoken previously in the local church. He was one of the 
main speakers on the first night's program during the 
Jubilee convention here the previous year, his subject 
being rural work. 

When Mr. Brayshaw continued ill after Easter, Mr. 
Williams kept on serving here as acting rector. Following 
the former's death, Mr. Williams resigned as supply 
rector early in July. However, on July 10 he was elected 
the regular rector of the parish. 2 

It was under his supervision that the parish house 
addition was again recommended 3 and at last accom- 
plished, being started in November, 1937, and made ready 
for use by the next March. This two-story extension has 
a rector's office, a church school office and three church 
school classrooms on the lower floor and seven classrooms 
on the second floor, a total of twelve rooms. 

At the parish supper in 1935 it was announced that 
women for the first time were eligible for election to the 
vestry; but the parishioners decisively defeated a motion 
to extend this plan to Christ Church women. 4 It was put 
into vogue elsewhere in this and other dioceses. 

The parish suppers were made unusually enjoyable by 
Mr. Williams, with annual reports of church organization 
officials, talks by Bishop Darst and the Rev. Walter R. 
Noe, of Wilmington, executive secretary of the diocese, 
and fellowship features. 

A parish bulletin was authorized in December, 1936, 5 
and proved so helpful and successful that it has since 
then been published weekly by the rector, except during 



THE REV. CHARLES E. WILLIAMS 21 1 

the Summer months from the second Sunday in June to 
the second Sunday in September. 

Among the physical improvements of church property 
during the past few years, Mr. Bishop at his own expense 
had the church interior and outside porch repainted in 
1938. 6 

St. Ann's Chapter of the Woman's Auxiliary had the 
grave of the first rector, the Rev. James Reed, rebricked 
in 1937. A long flat marble slab was placed there, with an 
appropriate inscription. 7 Much other work was done in 
the church yard. Historical markers had already been 
erected there by the city and the New Bern Historical 
Society. 

In commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the 
death of John Wright Stanly, buried in the church yard 
in 1789, a memorial service was held at the grave in 1939 
by the Young People's Service League. 

One of the most important accomplishments during 
Mr. Williams' active and fruitful ministry was the build- 
ing of a sacristy, as an addition to the northeastern 
portion of the church. This was done by St. Agnes 
Chapter, another of the seven chapters of the Auxiliary. 
It was dedicated to the use of the Altar Guild, in memory 
of Mr. Brayshaw, (1891-1934). Many of the furnishings 
of the beautiful little room are memorials to other 
persons. 

During the early part of May, 1940, Mr. Williams began 
holding noon prayer services in the church every week 
day to pray for world peace and improved world con- 
ditions. Members of other denominations joined Episco- 
palians in these services for three months. The American 
flag was kept constantly in the chancel. 

As of July 22, 1940, there were 607 baptized members 
listed on the church rolls, with 489 confirmed communi- 
cants. 

The church school had 168 members enrolled for the 
year of 1939-40, with 19 teachers and officers, Mr. 
Williams acting as general superintendent. Under the 
direction of Mrs. Leinster Duffy, a splendid Junior choir 
furnished Lenten music as usual. 



212 CROWN OF LIFE 

During the past ten years the Young People's Service 
League did excellent work, winning a banner as a standard 
league for seven years of that decade (1933-1939), and 
one year being awarded the diocesan shield for making 
the best record in the diocese. 

A living Christmas tree sponsored by this organization 
was planted at the southwestern corner of the church 
yard, in memory of Miss Mollie Heath, for over half a 
century a local public school teacher and church school 
primary teacher. 

Memorials in the church and church yard have been 
compiled and listed by Miss Margaret S. Bryan. The 
attractive scrapbook is exhibited for the many visitors 
who come to the church during the annual Garden Club 
pilgrimages. 

All organizations of the church functioned successfully 
during the 1939-40 year, report church officials. The 
Woman's Auxiliary as always had a busy year, as did its 
various chapters. The women have always worked 
loyally and efficiently for their church, and have had 
various successful organizations as the present Altar 
Guild ; the former St. Cecilia society, which staged so 
many successful Christmas bazaars; and other sewing 
societies, missionary groups and church auxiliaries. 

Since the War Between the States there have been only 
four Senior Wardens: Jacob Gooding, John Hughes, 
George H. Roberts and Mr. Bishop. 

It is impossible to check exactly the number of years 
that Mr. Gooding served on the vestry, but it was proba- 
bly half a century, including the church activity recess 
during the War Between the States. He was on the vestry 
in 1830 when the first vestry minutes now extant begin. 
How long he had then been a member is not known. In 
1824 he was not a vestryman. He served until his death 
at the age of almost 90 in 1877. Nor is it known exactly 
how long he was Senior Warden, as the first reference 
to this in the minutes was in 1852. Family connections 
have been told that he served for 40 years as Senior 
Warden. 



THE REV. CHARLES E. WILLIAMS 213 

Major Hughes served on the vestry for 23 years, includ- 
ing 12 years as Senior Warden. George H. Roberts, for 
33 years Senior Warden, served 48 years on the vestry. 
Mr. Bishop's long service on the vestry began in 1889, 
and his Senior Wardenship started in 1922. 

An unusually long vestry record was also made by 
Judge Henry R. Bryan, who served 53 years, from 1866 
to his death in 1919, including a number of years as 
Junior Warden. J. G. Dunn, Sr., also long a Junior 
Warden in recent years, served 33 years on the vestry 
to 1940. 

Of outstanding importance and interest to Christ 
Church members is the Permanent Endowment Fund. 
This was first started June 7, 1886, when George B. Guion 
bequeathed $500, for use in maintaining the church yard ; 
but the money was so badly needed for current expenses 
during the next decade that it was borrowed by the 
vestry, with the intention of replacing it shortly. 

Not until March 5, 1929, was this sum returned to the 
fund, which by then had been re-established with other 
legacies. It was repaid into the endowment from interest 
that had accumulated on the fund. 

Mr. Bishop was appointed trustee for the fund, and in 
1940 had the distinction of having preserved the entire 
principal intact, despite the industrial depression and 
bank failures. At Mr. Bishop's request, John G. Dunn, 
Jr., has been a co-trustee since 1935. 

From the vestry minutes, especially those for the early 
part of 1929, during Mr. Madara's rectorate, may be found 
references to the endowment fund. Only the interest is 
used, for upkeep of the church yard, permanent improve- 
ments on the church and other such expenditures 
considered of permanent value to the church or its 
congregation. 

A total of $14,100 was shown for the principal, invested 
in good securities, according to the trustees' books as of 
September 2, 1940. The list of donors, with the amount 
of their bequests and the date received, follows : 

George B. Guion, $500, 1886-1929; Charles Tilden 
Pumphrey, a choir member confirmed in the church just 



214 CROWN OF LIFE 

before leaving here on World War service, dying of 
pneumonia while on Y.M.C.A. duty in France, $100, 1919 ; 
Mrs. Kate La Montaigne, $500, 1919 ; George H. Roberts, 
$1,000, 1927; Mrs. Mary O. Windley, $500, 1927; Mrs. 
Sarah E. Wadsworth, $1,000, 1928; James A. Bryan, 
$5,000, 1929 ; Mrs. Margaret D. Nelson, $2,000, 1929 ; Mrs. 
Louise B. Addis, $3,000, 1934 ; and Mrs. Sophia B. Duffy, 
$500, 1940. 

Much of Mr. Williams' time, as well as that of Bishop 
Darst, Mr. Noe, Mr. Bishop and other church members, 
has been given to the Good Shepherd Hospital for 
Negroes, 8 opened June 26, 1938, as the only such institu- 
tion for Negro patients in an eighty-mile radius. It was 
sponsored by the Diocese, and was located on property 
that had been left the Diocese by the Rev. Mr. Forbes. 

Its second anniversary was observed here, with appro- 
priate program, on Sunday, June 30, 1940. At that time 
it was announced that there was no outstanding indebted- 
ness on the $70,000 building and equipment. The Duke 
Endowment, the Pennsylvania Diocese and others were 
among the donors. Women's Auxiliaries of East Carolina 
and Massachusetts gave the hospital quantities of linens 
and supplies during the Spring. 

Mr. Noe is chairman and treasurer of the board of 
directors; the Rev. R. I. Johnson, general manager and 
chief organizer. For the two years they reported 392 
operations, 320 medical cases, 75 babies born, 342 persons 
in the out-patient department, and as many as 500 persons 
a month at the regular clinics conducted there by county 
health officials. 

As rector of St. Cyprian's Church since 1918, the Rev. 
R. I. Johnson has been outstanding, not only in this 
diocese but in other parts of the country. Although much 
work among Negroes was done here by white rectors, with 
a Negro congregation organized temporarily as early as 
1833, 9 the permanent organization of St. Cyprian's Church 
dates back only to June 20, 1866. For a time it was 
served by white leaders, as Mr. Skinner and Mr. Forbes. 

The Rev. Peter W. Cassey, a perpetual deacon, who 
came here in 1880 and served until 1894, was the first 



THE REV. CHARLES E. WILLIAMS 215 

colored man to have charge of the church, and since then 
all rectors have been Negroes. The next year he was 
followed by the Rev. George Frazier Miller, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., who remained one year. The Rev. George Avant 
was rector from 1898 to 1907. During the rectorate of 
the Rev. J. L. Taylor, 1907-13, the present church was 
built to replace the former century-old structure. For 
one year, 1915-16, the Rev. S. A. Morgan served there, 
being succeeded by the incumbent, whose ministry has 
been the longest of all. 



i V. M., Vol. 5, p. 214. 

2 Ibid., pp. 221-22. 

3 Ibid., 219, 270, et passim. Supra, 201, 207. 

4 V. M., Vol. 5, p. 243. 

5 Ibid., 258. 

6 Ibid., 285. 

7 Supra, p. 96. 

8 Supra, p. 201. See also V. M., June 16, 1930, Vol. 5, p. 172. 

9 Supra, pp. 127, 142. 



LVII 

THE RT. REV. THOMAS C. DARST 

The Right Reverend Thomas Campbell Darst, D. D., 
third Bishop of the Diocese of East Carolina since 1915, 
deserves a large share of the credit for the progress and 
promise of the parish and the Diocese during the last 
quarter of a century. His encouragement and inspiration 
have assisted the local rectors in all their undertakings 
and objectives. 

Born at Pulaski, Va., November 10, 1875, a son of 
Thomas Welsh Darst and Margaret Glendy Darst, he was 
reared in the Presbyterian faith, like Bishops Ravenscroft, 
Ives and Watson. When he told his mother he had decided 
to become an Episcopal minister, she said, "I bequeath 
thee to His Divine Will." 

In 1899 he was graduated from Roanoke College, Salem, 
Va., and three years later from the Virginia Theological 
Seminary. Since then he has been awarded the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity by Roanoke College, the Virginia 
Seminary, the University of the South, Duke University 
and the University of North Carolina. 

Ordained to the diaconate by Bishop Peterkin, of West 
Virginia, in 1902, he was ordained to the priesthood the 
next year by Bishop Gravatt. He served as assistant 
rector of Christ Church, Fairmont, W. Va., 1902-03 ; then 
became rector of Meade and John's parishes in Upperville, 
Va., where he stayed until 1905; when he became rector 
of St. Mark's Church, Richmond, for four years. From 
1909 to 1914 he was rector of St. Paul's, Newport News, 
Va. ; then went to St. James, Richmond. 

Unanimously elected Bishop of the Diocese of East 
Carolina at St. Peter's Church in Washington, he was 
consecrated January 6, 1915, at St. James Church, 
Wilmington, by Bishops Tuttle, Cheshire, Horner, Guerry, 
Gravatt and B. D. Tucker. The 25th anniversary of this 
occasion was appropriately celebrated last January during 
the 57th annual meeting of the Diocesan convention and 



THE RT. REV. THOMAS C. DARST 217 

the 52nd annual gathering of the Diocesan Woman's 
Auxiliary at St. James. 

Not only among Episcopalians but also among all de- 
nominations Bishop Darst is known and beloved. With 
his Bishop's Fund he has aided many persons. At the 
annual encampments at Camp Leach, he is loved as one 
of the best sports among all the young people at the 
church resort. 

During his 25 years in the Diocese he has confirmed 
about 9,000 persons ; sixty young men have been ordained 
ministers; and thirteen persons have gone into foreign 
mission fields. 

Among those serving as a missionary in a foreign land 
from this Diocese is a native New Bernian, Dr. Lula 
Disosway, daughter of Mrs. Lula Disosway and the late 
R. J. Disosway. In 1927 she went to China as a medical 
missionary, and has made a high mark for herself as 
assistant to the superintendent of St. Elizabeth's Epis- 
copal Hospital at Shanghai, where she has charge of the 
maternity division. Through shot and shell, war and 
revolution, she has remained faithfully on her job. Her 
talks about her work during her visits home are heard 
with much interest. 

Originator and director of the famous Bishops' Crusade 
a number of years ago, Bishop Darst became known all 
over the country. He has preached in many of the 
leading churches and cities of America. 

Besides serving as the first Chairman of the National 
Commission on Evangelism, he has been president of the 
Synod of the Province of Sewanee; and trustee of the 
University of the South, St. Mary's and St. Augustine's 
schools at Raleigh, and the Bishop Payne Divinity School 
at Petersburg, Va. 

Included in the Diocese of East Carolina, one of the 
three now in North Carolina, are most of the counties in 
the eastern part of the State along the entire coastline. 
There were about 8,000 communicants and almost 100 
parishes and missions reported in 1940. 

Cooperating in extensive plans that contemplate the 
eventual restoration of historic St. Thomas Church, 



218 CROWN OF LIFE 

"Cathedral of the Diocese," and other old buildings at 
Bath, oldest town in North Carolina, Bishop Darst has 
exemplified his regard and appreciation for the past 
record of the church, in building on historical heritage 
for a more worthy present and a greater future, with 
praise and gratitude for the work, service and inspiration 
of older leaders in pointing the way towards higher goals. 



CHRIST CHURCH VESTRYMEN 

In Chronological Order 

From 1830 to Present Date, 1940 

John R. Donnell 

John P. Daves 

John H. Bryan 

D. Hatch 

Moses Jarvis (Treasurer, Junior Warden) 

Jacob Gooding (Treasurer, Senior Warden) 

William Kyle (Secretary) 

Edward G. Pasteur 

John M. Roberts 

James W. Bryan (Secretary) 

Charles Shepard (Secretary) 

John W. Guion (Secretary) 

Edward Benners 

Samuel Oliver 

Stephen B. Forbes 

Asa Jones 

John Blackwell 

Moses W. Jarvis (Secretary, Treasurer, Junior 

Warden) 
Thomas S. Singleton 
William Dunn (Secretary, Treasurer) 
John R. Justice 
John N. Washington 
J. C. Justice 
John A. Guion 
M. A. Outten 
Israel Disosway 
William G. Hall (Treasurer) 
John S. Winthrop 
William H. Oliver (Secretary, Treasurer, Junior 

Warden) 
Joseph Fulford (Treasurer) 
John Hughes (Senior Warden) 



220 CROWN OF LIFE 

Henry R. Bryan (Junior Warden) 

Frederick C. Roberts (Secretary) 

Daniel T. Carraway (Secretary, Treasurer) 

George H. Roberts (Treasurer, Junior Warden, Senior 

Warden) 
W. B. Boyd (Secretary) 
M. D. W. Stevenson 

John Dunn (Treasurer, Junior Warden) 
John S. Long 

Owen H. Guion (Secretary) 
E. K. Bishop (Secretary, Junior Warden, Senior 

Warden) 
J. B. Hughes 
Robert Ransom 
Graham Daves (Secretary) 
John R. B. Carraway (Treasurer) 
M. Makeley 
Edward B. Roberts 
William Dunn, Sr. (Secretary) 
Wentworth S. Simmons (Secretary) 
Frank W. Hughes 
Charles L. Stevens 

J. G. Dunn (Treasurer, Junior Warden) 
Thomas D. Warren 
W. G. Boyd (Secretary) 
H. B. Smith 
William Dunn, Jr. 
W. B. R. Guion 
H. M. Bonner 
R. J. Disosway 
Charles A. Seifert 
William W. Griffin (Treasurer) 
Mark Disosway (Honorary Vestryman for Life) 
H. J. Lovick 
W. J. Rice 

Charles H. Stith (Junior Warden) 
C. R. Thomas 

George H. Roberts, Jr. (Secretary) 
J. E. Boswell (Secretary, Treasurer) 
E. R. Marriner 



CHRIST CHURCH VESTRYMEN 221 

J. C. Bagg (Secretary) 

E. A. Braddy 

J. G. Dunn, Jr. (Treasurer) 

Henry P. Whitehurst 

Frank N. Challen 

Oscar A. Kafer, Sr. 

Laurence A. Stith (Secretary) 

L. M. Satterthwaite 

John Haywood Jones (Secretary) 

Frank F. Fagan (Junior Warden) 

John A. Guion 

Parker W. Morris 

G. N. Mitchell 

1940 VESTRYMEN 

E. K. Bishop, Senior Warden 

F. F. Fagan, Junior Warden 
J. G. Dunn, Jr., Treasurer 
John Haywood Jones, Clerk 
J. E. Boswell 

Parker W. Morris 

G. N. Mitchell 
Charles H. Stith 
George H. Roberts, Jr. 

COMMITTEE APPOINTED BY VESTRY TO ARRANGE FOR 
WRITING AND PUBLISHING OF CHURCH HISTORY 

E. K. Bishop 
John A. Guion 
Judge R. A. Nunn 



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Dttbbs, Joseph H. Historic Manual of the Reformed Church. Dr. 
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Fox, George. Journal. Trip to North Carolina during Colonial 
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Havens, Jonathan. The Pamlico Section of North Carolina. New 
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Hawks, Francis L. History of North Carolina. 2 v. Fayetteville, 
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inscriptions. 



ABBREVIATIONS OF TITLES 

Col. Rec. The Colonial Records of North Carolina. 

St. Rec . The State Records of North Carolina. 

V. M. Vestry Minutes of Christ Church, New Bern. 

P. R. Parish Registers, Christ Church. 

D. J. Diocesan Journals, proceedings of diocesan 

conventions in Dioceses of North Carolina 

and East Carolina. 



INDEX 



Ackroyd, James B., 138 

Acoustic System, 204 

"Acres of Diamonds," 169 

Adams, James, 16, 17 

Addis, Louise B., 214 

Africa, 130 

African Episcopal, 173 

Alabama, 130, 172 

Alamance, 89 

Alaska, 204 

Albemarle Section, 16, 41, 110 

Alexandria, 106 

All Saints Chapel, 189, 198 

Altar Cloths, 205-6 

Altar Guild, old organization, 183; 
present organization, 211, 212 

Ambrose, Phil, 68 

American Foreign Missionary 
Society, 132 

Americus, Ga., 192 

Amory, T. J. C, 169 

Anabaptists, 30, 54, 80 

Andrew Chapel, 129-30 

Andrews, A. B., 81, 117, 223 

Annapolis, 199 

Apostolic Succession, 137, 170 

Archdale, John, 12 

Archdale Precinct, 16 

Architecture, present church, 
179-80 

Armistice, World War, 201 

Army, 206; see also Confederate 
Army and Union Soldiers 

Asbury, Bishop, 129 

Ashe, John, 77 

Ashe, Samuel A., 22, 223 

Asheville, 184, 198 

Asheville Missionary District, 198 

Assembly Acts, 14, 23, 24, 25-27, 
29, 34-35, 36, 37, 39, 42, 47, 48, 
50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58-60, 62, 
66, 73, 82, 86, 89, 98, 99, 100; 
incorporation of New Bern 
school, 70; erection of govern- 
ment house, 74; see also General 
Assembly 

Atkinson, James C, 184 

Atkinson, Thomas A., 140, 158, 
162, 163-65, 169, 173, 179, 182, 
184, 186, 187, 193 

Atlantic and North Carolina Rail- 
road, 163 

Atlantic City, 202 

Attmore, George S., 159 

Attmore, William, 100, 223 

Avant, George, 215 



Avery, John, 119, 124 

Badger, George E., 117, 159 
Bagg, J. C, 201, 220 
Baltimore, 154, 163, 208 
Bandon, 41 
Baptisms, 21, 27, 29, 30, 40-41, 54, 

63, 73, 76, 80, 83, 87, 125, 126, 

137, 138, 151, 167, 170, 173, 

175, 178 
Baptist, 22, 32, 129, 131-35, 138, 

139, 169, 175, 181 
Baptist Sunday School Board, 135 
Barbados, 125 
Barnett, John, 73 
Baskett, John, 45 
Bass, Alexander, 179 
Bath, 13, 16, 36, 37, 40, 47, 58, 64, 

69, 73, 79, 83, 217-18 
Bath County, 16 
Battle, Kemp P., 13 
Battle of New Bern, 167-68 
Baxter's Jewelry Store, 177 
Bayard vs. Singleton, 100 
Bayley, Amb. Cox, 68 
Bazaars, 212 

Beaufort, 27, 175, 181, 208 
Beaufort County, 69, 120 
Beaufort Precinct, 16, 25 
Belgrade, 110 

Bell, on church, 141, 177, 179, 201 
Bell, Joseph, 25, 27 
Benners, Edward, 219 
Benners, Lucas, 124, 125 
Bentham, Joseph, 45 
Bern, 20 
Bertie, 30, 73 
Bethel Conference, 133 
Bevis, Christopher, 41 
Bible, 20, 32, 172 
Bible, royal gift to parish, 45-46 
Bible Class, 200 
Biblical Recorder, 131 
Bi-Centennial, founding of New 

Bern, 195-96 
Bill of Rights, 93 
Bishop, Edward K., 3, 141, 177, 

188, 190, 197, 198, 200, 207, 211, 

212, 213, 214, 220, 221 
Bishop, George, 177 
Bishop of Charleston, Catholic, 

132 
Bishop of London, 10, 13, 14, 20, 

21, 29, 30, 44, 50, 59, 60, 66, 73, 

76, 77, 84, 86, 89 
Bishop Payne Divinity School, 217 



232 



INDEX 



Bishop's Crusade, 217 
Bishop's Fund, 217 
Blackwell, John, 159, 219 
Blades, Mrs. J. Vernon, 201 
Blair, John, 15 
Blount, Jacob, 55, 64, 68, 77 
Blount, James, 77 
Blount, John B., 122 
Blount, the Rev. Mr., 97, 102, 103 
Blount, William, 98, 99 
Blount's Chapel, 119 
Board of Trade, 31, 35, 50, 52, 83 
Bold, George, 38 
Bonner, H. M., 220 
Bonner, James, 77 
Boone, Joseph, 15 
Boston, 44, 168, 169, 180, 190 
Boswell, J. E., 201, 220, 221 
Boundary, between North Caro- 
lina and Virginia, 27 
Boyd, Adam, 119 
Boyd, John, 30 
Boyd, W. B., 220 
Boyd, W. G., 201, 220 
Boyd, William K., 28 
Braddy, E. A., 221 
Brady, C. O., 179 
Bragg, Mr., 133 
Bray, Thomas, 10, 12, 13 
Brayshaw, I. deL., 6, 206, 207-9, 

210, 211 
Brayshaw, Katharine (Mrs. I. 

deL.), 206, 208 
Brayshaw, William, 209 
Breaker, J. M. C, 132 
Brett, Daniel, 12, 15 
Brice, William, 25 
Brick Manufacture, 37, 38 
Brickell, John, 41, 223 
Brinson, Samuel M., 33 
British, 51, 89, 95, 97 
Broad Street Christian Church, 

133, 135 
Brooklyn, 158, 215 
Brooks, George, 169 
Brooks, Isaac E., 204 
Brooks, John, 33 
Brooks, Phillips, 169 
Brotherhood of St. Andrew, 200 
Brown, John H., 6, 191, 192, 195, 

197 
Brunswick, 41, 42, 52, 67, 69, 72, 

73, 77 
Brunswick County, Va., 193 
Bruton Parish, Williamsburg, Va., 

123 
Bryan, Edward, 38, 39 
Bryan, Henry R., 166, 173, 179, 

188, 192, 200, 213, 220 



Bryan, James A., 156, 190, 214 

Bryan, James W., 141, 159, 166, 
219 

Bryan, John, 37, 38 

Bryan, John Council, 44 

Bryan, John H., 127, 219 

Bryan, Margaret S., 212 

Bryan, William, 99 

Buffalo, N. Y., 183 

Burgaw, 195 

Burgess, Thomas, 73 

Burgwyn, J. F., 136, 138 

Burial Plots, 155; see also Ceme- 
tery, Cedar Grove Cemetery, 
Christ Church Yard, Federal 
Cemetery and Greenwood Ceme- 
tery. 

Burke, John, 6, 144-45 

Burnside, A. E., 168 

Burr, Aaron, 130 

Burr, Agnes Rush, 171 

Burrington, George, 29 

Burton, Daniel, 79 

Bute, 73 

Buxton, Jarvis B., 127 

Bynum, J. N., 198 

Byrd, William, 27-28 

Calhoun, John C, 105 
California, 164, 187 
Calvary Church, New York, 154 
Calvinists, 19, 21, 22 
Cambridge University, 164 
Camden, S. C, 209 
Camp Leach, 217 
Campbell, John, 77 
Campbell, John Nicholson, 131 
Campbell, Marsden, 121-22, 198 
Cape Fear, 30, 42, 52, 65 
Cape Henry, 9, 11 
Capital, 33, 74-75, 112 
Carlton, William, 32 
Carolina Centinel, 134 
Carolina Churchman, 195 
Carraway, Daniel T., 178-79, 220 
Carraway, John R. B., 192, 220 
Carraway, Kate, 183 
Carraway, Sarah Bennett (Mrs. 

D. T.), 178 
Carter, James, 48 
Carteret Precinct, 27 
Cassey, Peter W., 214-15 
Caswell, Richard, 68, 77, 99, 100 
Cathedral of Diocese, 218 
Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 

206 
Catholic, 22, 29, 54, 92, 125, 132, 

145, 152, 155 
Catholic Orphanage, Raleigh, 132 



INDEX 



233 



Cedar Grove Cemetery, 86, 105-6, 
113, 117, 142, 151, 154, 155, 156, 
174 

Cemeteries, 155-56; see also Burial 
Plots, Christ Church Yard, 
Cedar Grove Cemetery, Federal 
Cemetery and Greenwood Ceme- 
tery 

Census, 120 

Centenary Methodist Church, 129 

Centennial Anniversary, 198 

Cesar, the Rev. Mr., 20 

Chalice Veil, 206 

Challen, Frank N., 221 

Chancellor Kent, 170 

Chapel Hill, 113, 131, 149 

Chapel of the Cross, 131 

Chaplain of Congress, 131 

Charles I, 23 

Charles II, 10 

Charleston, S. C, 42, 132 

Charter, 10 

Chattawka, 20 

Cheraw, S. C, 149 

Cheshire, Joseph Blount, 11, 13, 
17, 39, 42, 43, 49, 72, 75, 84, 88, 
97, 101, 104, 107, 108, 111, 117, 
118, 120, 123, 140, 186, 187, 198, 
216 

Chester B'nai Sholem Synagogue, 
133 

Chester, Stephen, 134 

Chevin, N., 26 

China, 217 

Chocowinity, 119 

Choir, 138, 190, 213 

Chowan, 12, 14, 16, 17, 25, 26, 36, 
40, 69, 73 

Chowan Institute, 132 

Christ Church, Baltimore, 154 

Christ Church, Elizabeth City, 172 

Christ Church, Fairmont, W. Va., 
216 

Christ Church, New Orleans, 153 

Christ Church, Pensacola, 195 

Christ Church, Raleigh, 120, 127, 
138 

Christ Church Parish, New Bern, 
64, 67, 86, 98, 112, 124, 126, 149, 
174, 181, 185, 186, 195, 197, 216; 
designated as a parish, 34, 42; 
first church built, 36-39, 44, 69, 
100, 106, 115, 133, 134, 136; 
second church, 100, 101, 129, 
136-40; third church built and 
consecrated, 177-82; wardens, 
86, 101, 103, 136; yard, 96, 99, 
113, 136, 155-56, 174, 201, 208, 
211, 212, 213 

Christian Science, 133 



Christmas, 31, 83, 181, 192, 212 

Christmas Tree, 212 

Church Canvass, 205 

Church Constitution, 97; Diocese, 

121; State, 107, 109, 121-22, 168 
Church of Annunciation, New 

York, 154 
Church of England, 9, 10, 12, 14- 

17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 

33, 34, 35, 45-46, 54, 58-60, 65, 

68, 70, 72, 74, 79, 82, 83, 87, 93, 

95, 97, 163 
Church of Good Shepherd, Raleigh, 

193 
Church of Holy Saviour, New 

York, 154 
Church of Mediation, New York, 

154 
Church School, see Sunday School 
City Hall, 188, 205 
Claremont, New Hampshire, 184 
Claremont, Esclairmond, 178 
Clarke, Mary Bayard, 156 
Clay, Henry, 172 
Clay, Jehu Curtis, 6, 121-22, 198 
Cleary, Timothy, 68 
Cleery, Patrick, 155 
Clements, William, 103, 106 
Clergy Bills, 51-52, 56, 58-60, 66, 

73-74, 89 
Clermont Plantation, 99, 114, 117 
Clitherall, John, 68 
Clubfoot Creek, 21 
Coart, Sarah, 152 
Cogdail, Charles, 27 
Cogdell, Richard, 62, 64, 68 
Cohen, Abraham David, 132 
Collector, Port of New Bern, 152, 

174 
Collins, Josiah, 121, 170, 199 
Collins, Mrs. Josiah, 170 
Collins, William, 114 
Colonial Dames, 42 
Colonial Records of North Caro- 
lina, see footnotes at end of 

chapters 
Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 

81 
Columbia, S. C, 132, 138, 142 
Columbus, Ga., 152 
Committee of Correspondence, 

church, 102 
Committee of Safety, 90, 99 
Communion, 30, 48, 50, 54, 63, 202 
Communion Silver, 44, 187 
Compton, Henry, 13 
Confederacy, 171 
Confederate Army, 111, 166, 167, 

193 
Confederate Baptist, 132 



234 



INDEX 



Confederate Monument, 156 

Congress, 131 

Connecticut, 127, 145, 153, 154, 
156, 164 

Connor, Henry G., 94, 128 

Connor, R. D. W., 78 

Constitution, Federal, 93, 97, 98, 
99, 197; State, 35, 92-93, 99; 
State Church, see Church Con- 
stitution 

Constitutional Amendments, 93, 
197 

Constitutional Convention, State, 
92-93 

Continental Congress, 90, 99 

Conventions, North Carolina Epis- 
copal, first, 103; second, 103-4; 
third, 106-7; others, 109, 121-23, 
126, 127, 158; see also Diocesan 
Conventions 

Conway, Peter, 68 

Conwell, Russell H., 169 

Cook, John, 130 

Coon, Charles Lee, 118 

Coor-Gaston-Henderson House, 
125 

Cornell, Samuel, 68, 77 

Corporal Cloth, 206 

Cosgreve, Thomas, 73 

Cotting, Eliu, 68 

Council, 33, 66, 92 

Court, Pleas and Quarter Sessions, 
32-33, 80 

Cox, Longfield, 68 

Cox, Melvell B., 130 

Cranmer, May Webb, 170 

Craven County, 19-22, 39, 69, 73, 
80, 95, 130, 214 

Craven, Earl of, 14 

Craven Parish, 25-27 

Craven Precinct, 14, 26 

Cray, William, 77 

Credence Cloth, 206 

Creecy, Richard B., 94 

Creswell, 110, 210 

Crosswell, Harry, 153 

Cuppels, Charles, 73, 97 

Currituck, 16, 25 

Curtis, Moses A., 148 

Custis, Peter, 156 

Cutting, Leonidas, 6, 98-101, 105 

Daly, John, 68 

Dare, Virginia, 9 

Darst, Margaret G., 216 

Darst, T. W., 216 

Darst, Thomas C, 189, 198, 210, 

214, 216-18 
Daves, Graham, 45, 46, 189, 220 
Daves, John, 101, 174 



Daves, John P., 136, 138, 139, 174, 
175, 219 

Daves, Mary M. (Mrs. John W. 
Ellis), 175 

Daves, Mrs., 159 

Davidson College, 131 

Davis, James, 33, 41, 49, 61, 64, 
68, 73, 78, 100 

Davis, Jefferson, 171 

Davis, William, 77 

Declaration of Independence, 130, 
132 

Dedication, of book, 4 

deGraffenried, Christopher, 20, 21, 
22, 36 

Delaware, 127 

de Miranda, Don Francisco, 75 

Denver, Cathedral, 206 

de Richebourg, Claude Phillippe, 
19 

de Rossett, Armand, 208 

deRosset, Lewis, 77 

de Rosset, William L., 11 

Diocese of East Carolina, 158, 166, 
171, 187, 189, 193, 198, 207-8, 
210, 214, 216, 217, 218; organi- 
zation, 186 

Diocese of Newark, 204 

Diocese of North Carolina, 121-23, 
126, 137, 138, 141, 158, 179, 186, 
187, 193, 198, 207 

Diocese of Pennsylvania, 214 

Diocese of Western New York, 183 

Diocesan Conventions, 121-22, 124, 
126, 127, 137, 145, 158, 166, 173, 
179, 186, 187, 198, 207, 216; see 
also Conventions 

Diocesan Records, 149, 151; see 
also footnotes for various chap- 
ters 

Diocesan Reports, from Christ 
Church, 127, 142, 144, 147, 151- 
52, 158, 159-60, 162, 166, 167, 
168, 172, 173, 175, 178, 179, 183 

Diocesan Shield, 212 

Disciples of Christ, 133, 202 

Disestablishment of Church, 89-93 

Disosway, Israel, 219 

Disosway, Lula, 217 

Disosway, Mark, 190, 220 

Disosway, Mrs. Lula, 217 

Disosway, R. J., 217, 220 

Dissenters, 19, 30, 32, 33, 82 

Dobbs, Arthur, 47, 50-52, 54, 56, 
58, 61, 62, 64, 65, 72, 73, 114 

Dobbs County, 73 

Doherty, Richard B., 204 

Donnell, Anne, 179 

Donnell, John R., 136, 138, 140, 
219 



INDEX 



235 



Dow, Lorenzo, 129 

Dramatics, 115, 117 

Drane, R. B., 208 

Drane, Rebecca Wood, 170 

Draper, William, 114 

Drew, Daniel, 120 

Dry, William, 77 

Dubbs, Joseph H., 22 

Duel, 113 

Duffy, Francis S., 189 

Duffy, Mrs. Leinster, 211 

Duffy, Mrs. Richard N., 207 

Duffy, Sophia B. (Mrs. Charles), 

190, 214 
Duffy, Sam, 188 
Duke Endowment, 214 
Duke University, 216 
Dukenfield, Nat, 77 
Dunn, J. G., 200, 201, 213, 220 
Dunn, J. G., Jr., 201, 213, 221 
Dunn, John, 220 
Dunn, Lucretia Guion (Mrs. John), 

189 
Dunn, William, 159, 219 
Dunn, William, Sr., 197, 220 
Dunn, William, Jr., 220 
Durham, 188 
Dutch, 20, 21 

Eagles, Alexander, 68 

Earl, Daniel, 41, 69, 73, 90, 97, 110 

Earl of Dartmouth, 89 

East Carolina Sunday School Com- 
mission, 195 

Easter, 32, 65, 122, 170, 210 

Easter Monday, 25, 34, 92, 101 

Eddy, Mary Baker, 133 

Eddy, the Rev. Mr., 175 

Eden, Charles, 23, 26, 37 

Edenton, 30, 36-37, 40, 41, 64, 69, 
90, 102, 109, 110, 119, 122, 124, 
126, 175, 199, 208 

Edenton Academy, 110 

Edes, Henry H., 81 

Edgecombe, 73 

Edmundson, William, 12, 13 

Edwards, Jonathan, 130 

Elizabeth City, 147, 172 

Elliott, Charles, 155 

Ellis, Areta, 151 

Ellis, John W., 175 

Ellis, Mrs. J. W., 175 

Ellis, Richard, 68 

Ellixon, Mr., 133 

Elwin, Fountain, 67 

Empie, Adam, 121, 122, 124, 198 

Endowment Fund, 213 

England, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 
19, 20, 23, 40, 44-46, 51, 58, 59, 



England (Continued) 

61, 62, 76, 80, 83, 86, 89, 96, 97, 
119. 137, 152, 153 

English, 22, 120 

Episcopal Church, name chosen, 
97; first organization efforts in 
North Carolina, 97-98, 102-103; 
first convention, 103; second 
convention, 103-4; third, 106-7; 
see also Conventions, Diocese of 
North Carolina, Diocese of East 
Carolina, Diocesan Conventions, 
Established Church and Church 
of England 

Established Church, 10, 14, 23, 24, 
25, 29, 34-35, 42, 58-60, 72, 82, 
84, 89, 93, 111 

Euen, Will, 68 

Eutaw Springs, 174 

Evans, Richard, 77 

Every Member Canvass, 198 

Fagan, Frank F., 201, 221 
Farrow, Mrs. G. A., 190 
Fasting, 51, 90 
Fayetteville, 44, 93, 104, 121, 122, 

124, 127, 168, 170, 173, 197, 198, 

199 
Federal Cemetery, 156 
Female Benevolent Society, see 

New Bern Benevolent Society 
Female Charitable Society, 145 
Female Education Society, 147 
Fenner, Richard, 62, 68 
Fernandina, Fla., 192 
Finch, Josiah J., 132 
Fire (1922), 201 
Fire, church (1871), 139, 177-80, 

182 
Firemen, 195-96 
Firemen's Tournament, 195-96 
First Bishop of North Carolina, 

see Pettigrew, Charles 
Fiske, Samuel, 73 
Flag, 201-2, 211 
Flanner, Bennett, 139 
Flora Macdonald College, 131 
Florida, 186, 192, 195 
Floyd, Thomas, 73 
Flushing, 154 
Fly the, Augustus M., 179 
Fontaine, Peter, 27, 50 
Fonveille (Fonvielle, Fonville), 

John, 38, 47, 55, 68, 101 
Forbes, Edward M., 6, 170, 172-75, 

189, 214 
Forbes, Stephen B., 172, 219 
Forey, Martin R., 132 
Fort Johnston, 90 
Fort Raleigh, 9 



23c 



INDEX 



Foster, Fran, 26 

Fox, George, 12, 13 

Fox, Mordecai. 44 

France, 15, 214 

Franck, John, 6S 

Frank. Martin, 25 

Fredericksburg. 137 

Freedom of Worship, 10, 14, 29-31, 

32 
Freeman, Frederick. 120 
Freeman. George W., 120 
Freeman. Jonathan Otis. 110, 120 
Free Will Baptists. 132-33 
French. 20. 22, 30. 51. 52, 100 
French Huguenots, 19, 42 
Fulcher. Thomas, 33 
Ftiiford, Joseph, 27 
Fulford, Joseph, 179. 219 
Fundamental Constitution, 10 
Furman Academy. 132 
Furman, Richard, Jr., 131 
Furman University, 131 

Gale, Christopher, 23, 26, 27 

Gale. Miles. 23 

Garden Club, 212 

Garzia, John, 40 

Gaston, Alexander, 65 

Gaston, Catherine Jane, 125 

Gaston, Eliza Ann Worthington. 
125 

Gaston, William. 92-93, 115, 117, 
125, 132, 142-43, 153, 154, 156 

Gates County, 40 

General Assembly, 14, 15, 16, 23, 
24. 27. 29. 33. 34-35. 42. 48, 49, 
50. 52, 56, 61, 69. 74. S3, 98, 100- 
1 : see Assembly Acts 

General Convention, 97, 102, 103, 
109. 110. 122. 141. 164. 1S6, 190, 
2 OS 

General Seminary, 170, 1S7 

Geneva College, 127. 144 

George II. 29. 44-46. 65, 12S, 134 

George III. 52, 59. 61, 65, 66, 67. 
SO, 82, S3, 86, 91 

George, T. M. N., 6, 188-91 

Georgetown, 125, 136 

Georgia, 65. 66. 190. 192 

German, 19. 20, 21. 22, 23 

Germantown, battle of, 174 

Gettysburg. Ill 

Gibbons, Cardinal, 132 

Giffard, W,. 77 

Girls' Friendly Societv, 190 

Glebes. 47, 50, 52. 60. 66, 69. 92, 93 

Golden Jubilee Anniversary, Dio- 
cese of East Carolina, 207-8, 210 

Goldsboro, 163 

Good, William, 101 



Gooding, Jacob, 173, 179, ISO. 212, 

219 
Goodman, John R., 6, 124, 141-42, 

152 
Good Shepherd Hospital, 214 
Gordon, Pat. 6S 
Gordon, William, 16 
Gordon, William B., 175 
Grace Chapel, 197 
Grace Church, Baltimore, 163 
Grace Church, Plymouth, 170 
Grace Church, Whiteville, 199 
Graham, J. W., 17, 39, 42, 43 
Grantham, 197 
Granville, Bevil, 30 
Granville County, 76 
Gravatt, Bishop, 216 
Graves, Richard, 25 
Graves, Thomas, 55 
Graves end, 19 
Gray, James W., 174 
Gray, Thomas, 77 
Green, F., 107 
Green, James, Jr., 77 
Green, John. 6S 
Green, William Mercer, 1S6 
Greene. Henry F., 6. 15S-61 
Greene, Nathaniel, 99 
Greensboro, 132, 204 
Greensboro Xews, 171 
Greenville. X. C, 197 
Greenwood Cemetery, 130 
Grirhn, Charles, 61 
Grirhn, Elizabeth, 205 
Griffin, Moses, 156 
Griffin School. 14S, 151, 1S9 
Griffin, William W„ 197, 220 
Groenendyke, Corn., 6S 
Guardians. 5S 
Guerry, Bishop. 216 
Guilford Battleground X'ational 

Park, 174 
Guion, George B., 213 
Guion, Isaac. 101, 109 
Guion, John A., 219 
Guion, John A., 221 
Guion. John W„ 124, 139, 147, 219 
Guion, Owen H„ 220 
Guion, W. B. R., 220 
Gurley, the Rev. Mr., 106-7 

Hahn's Bakery, 177 
Hagerstown. 117, 118 
Hale, Charles S., 6, 1S3-S4 
Hale, Louise Weed [Mrs. Charles 

S.), 1S4 
Halifax, 64. 73, 92, 93 
Hall, Clement, 40-41 
Hall, William G„ 173, 219 



INDEX 



237 



Hailing, Solomon, 6, 105-7, 109, 

119, 121 
Hamilton College, 187 
Hammondsport, N. Y., 206 
Hampden-Sidney, 163 
Hancock Creek, 21 
Hancock, William, 25 
Harding, Nathaniel, 186 
Hardy, Ben, 77 
Hare, Edward, 77 
Hare, Moses, 77 
Harnett, Cornelius, 77 
Harper's Weekly, 168 
Harrison, Hannah, 189 
Hartford, Conn., 164 
Harvey, John, 76, 77 
Hasell, James, 77 
Haslen, Thomas, 62, 101 
Hatch, D., 219 
Hatch, Lemuel, 55 
Haughton, T. B., 180 
Haughton, Thomas G., 6, 162 
Hawkins, Philemon, 77 
Hawks, Cicero S., 117, 152 
Hawks, Francis, 152 
Hawks, Francis L., 11, 13, 17, 18, 

22, 66, 78, 97, 117, 127, 152-54, 

157, 163 
Hawks, John, 66, 67, 74, 77, 99, 152 
Hawks, Julie, 152 
Hawks, William X., 6, 141, 144, 

147, 148, 151-52, 158, 173 
Hawley, Joseph R., 171 
Hayes, 102 
Haywood, Marshall DeLancey, 75, 

80, 84 
Haywood, William, 77 
Heat, 69 

Heath, Mollie, 212 
Henderson, 208 
Henderson, Archibald, 80, 101, 107, 

118 
Hendren, Elizabeth Mayhew, 134 
Herritage, Yv illiam, 38 
Hertford, 12 
Hewes, Joseph, 77 
Hillsboro, 78, 120, 148, 193 
Hines, Peter E., 173 
Hines, Thomas, 77 
Hobbs, Christopher Gregory, 38-39 
Hoeger, Henrv, 20 
Holidays, 23, 29 
Hollister, Dr. William, 131 
Hollister, William, 145 
Holly Springs, Miss., 153 
Holy Innocents Day, 181 
Hooper, the Rev. William, 132, 138 
Hooper, William, 132 
Homer, Junius M., 198, 216 
Horner and Graves School, 193 



Hoskins, Joseph A., 101 

Howard, Josiah, 127 

Howard, Martin, 80, 81 

Howard, Narcissa Hatch, 127 

Howe, Bishop, 186 

Howe, Robert, 77 

Howe, Thomas Clifford, 62, 67, 68 

Howell, Peter, 132 

Hubbard, Fordyce M., 6, 149-50 

Hughes, Frank W., 220 

Hughes, J. B., 220 

Hughes, Jane Graham, 189 

Hughes, Jennie Daves, 189 

Hughes, John, 173, 179, 188, 212, 
213, 219 

Hughes, John D., 183 

Hughes, Mrs. Frank W., 207 

Hughes, N. C, 208 

Hunt, Mrs. Eunice Edwards Pol- 
lock, 130 

Hunter, E. S., 159 

Hurricane, 208 

Huske, B. P., 6, 180, 197-99, 207 

Huske, Joseph, 44 

Hyde Precinct, 16, 25 

Improvement Fund, 197 

Indiana, 163 

Indians, 17, 19. 23, 27, 51, 52, 54, 

113 
Industrious Society, 141 
Infidels, 51, 54, 92-93 
Ireland, 27, 50, 76, 155 
Iron Fence, 189 

Irving, Thomas P., 6, 112-18, 119 
Irwin, M. A., 128, 135, 157 
Italy, 187 
Ives, Levi Silliman, 140, 145, 147, 

148, 152, 158, 164, 170, 172, 173, 

216 

Jacksonville, Fla., 186 

James I, 45 

James, John, 33 

Jamestown, 9 

Jardine Organ Company, 180-81 

Jarvis, Moses, 122, 126, 136, 138, 

139, 141, 219 
Jarvis, Moses W., 159, 166, 219 
Jasper, 202 

Jasper, James Bryan, 153 
Jewish Synagogue, 133 
Job, 116 

John's Parish, Va., 216 
Johnson, Guion Griffis, 63, 146, 176 
Johnson, R. I., 201, 214, 215 
Johnston County, 39, 49 
Johnston, Gabriel, 29, 72 
Johnston, Samuel, 77, 102 
Johnston, Samuel J., 170 



238 



INDEX 



Jonas, William, 55 

Jones, Asa, 219 

Jones County, 21, 127 

Jones, John Haywood, 201, 221 

Jones, Joseph, 68 

Jones, Marmaduke, 77 

Joyner, Edmund, 174 

Judd, Bethel, 121, 122, 124, 198 

Judd, Mehitable, 124 

Judd, William, 124 

Junior Auxiliary, 198 

Junior Choir, 211 

Justice, Alex, 159 

Justice, J. A., 159 

Justice, J. C, 219 

Justice, John R., 219 

Kafer, Oscar A., 221 

Kansas City, 200 

Kimball, Fiske, 75 

Kinston, 100, 175, 179, 199, 202, 

207 
Kittrell, 185 
Knight, Tobias, 26 
Knox, Andrew, 77 
Kocherthal, Josuah, 20 
Korea, 131 
Kyle, William, 219 

Lace, 206 

Lacy, Ben R., 131 

Lacy, Ben R., Jr., 131 

Lacy, Drury, 131 

Ladies Memorial Association, 156 

Ladies Sewing Society, 160, 177 

Lady Blessington Cannon, 136 

LaGrange College, 130 

Lake Scuppernong, 110 

La Montaigne, Kate, 214 

Lane, Hardy B., 139 

Lansdown, Lord, 30 

LaPierre, John, 30, 36, 42 

Lawson, John, 22, 37, 41 

Lay, Bishop, 164 

Leech, Joseph, 62, 77, 103, 104, 114 

Leech, Mary (Mrs. R. D. Spaight), 

114 
Leigh, John, 103, 106, 107 
Lente, Michael, 145 
Lexington, 162 
Lincolnton, 168 
Living Christmas Tree, 212 
Locke, John, 10 
London, 20, 21, 44, 45, 131 
London, Bishop of, see Bishop of 

London 
London, John Rutherford, 121, 198 
Long, John S., 183, 220 
Long Island, 154 
Long Wharf, 207 



Lords Proprietors, 10, 14, 16, 27 

Lossing, Benson J., 75 

Lottery, 52, 99 

Louisiana, 100, 153 

Lovick, H. J., 220 

Lovick, John, 21 

Lovick, Thomas, 21 

Lumberton, 199 

Lumsden, Mrs. H. C, 200, 206 

Lutherans, 19, 20, 21, 22 

Lyman, Theodore Benedict, 164, 

179, 186, 187, 193 
Lynch, John, 76 
Lynchburg, 163 

MacDowell, John, 55 

Mackey, John, 25 

MacKinnon, Daniel G., 6, 200-2, 

204 
MacKinnon, Mrs. D. G., 202 
Macilwean (Mackilwean), Francis, 

68, 77 
Madara, Guy H., 6, 199, 204-6, 213 
Madison, Bishop James, 105 
Magee, Mary, 32 
Makeley, M., 220 
Malaria, 184 
Malta, 152 
Manakin Town, 19 
Manila, 114, 205 
Manly, M. E., 155 
Mann, Albert W., 171 
Manteo, 9 
Marietta, Ga., 190 
Marriage Acts, 26, 34-35, 59, 66, 

74, 82, 93 
Marriages, 21, 26, 29, 34-35, 93, 

114, 142 
Marriner, E. R., 220 
Marsden, Richard, 29, 30 
Marshall, Matthias M., 140, 146, 

187 
Marshfield Hills, N. J., 202 
Martin County, 102, 119 
Martin, Francis X., 75, 100 
Martin, Josiah, 44, 82-84, 85-86, 

89, 90 
Mary Knoll, N. Y., 132 
Maryland, 10, 30, 97, 112, 187, 199, 

209 
Mason, Mary Bryan (Mrs. Richard 

S.), 37, 46, 128 
Mason, Richard S., 6, 46, 122, 124- 

28, 136, 144, 173 
Masons, 49, 100, 105, 106, 113; 

see also St. John's Lodge, A. F. 

& A. M. 
Massachusetts, 155, 156, 187 
Massachusetts Regiment, 45th. 

Volunteers, 168, 171 



INDEX 



239 



Massachusetts Woman's Auxiliary, 

214 
Matchepungo Bluff, 16 
McCartney, James, 76-77 
McClure, R. E., 148 
McClure, William, 100 
McConnell, S. D., 11, 13, 97, 104 
McCulloch, Alexander, 77 
McDuffie, H. S., 208 
McFarlin, Daniel, 25 
McKenzie, William, 103 
McKinlay, James, 174 
McKinlay, Mrs. James, 170, 174 
McKinne, William, 77 
McLean, Ann Daves, 189 
McRae, Cameron F., 6, 147-48, 

158, 172 
Meade Parish, Va., 216 
Meadows, E. H., 190 
Memorial Chapel, Tryon Palace 

Wing, 174, 177, 181, 183, 189 
Memorials, 158, 174, 180, 189, 

207-8, 211, 212 
Men's Work, 200 
Merchants and Miners Line, 180 
Meredith, Thomas, 131-32 
Meredith College, 131 
Merriday, Thomas, 27 
Merrit, John, 139 
Messenger of Hope, 195 
Methodists, 22, 31, 54, 62, 83, 119, 

129-30, 133-34, 137 
Mexico, 133 

Micklejohn, George, 72, 73, 78, 103 
Militia, 24 

Miller, George Frazier, 215 
Miller, Henry W., 163 
Miller, Stephen F., 120, 127, 128, 

134, 138, 139, 140, 154, 157, 168, 

171, 176 
Miller, William, 73 
Mission Herald, 171, 195 
Missionary Society, Christ Church, 

142, 212 
Missions and Missionaries, 10-17, 

23, 31, 40-43, 54, 62, 69, 73, 83, 

96, 124, 126, 130, 131, 179, 181, 

193, 198, 202, 206, 217 
Mississippi, 100, 132, 153, 154, 186 
Mississippi School for Blind, 132 
Mitchell, G. N., 221 
Mitchell, Joshua, 139 
Mobile, Ala., 172 
Moir, James, 41-42, 69, 72 
Moline's Creek, 16 
Monroe, James, 105, 114, 125-26 
Montford, Joseph, 77 
Monumental Church, 137 
Moor, 152 
Moore, Adam, 38 



Moore, Hight C, 135, 140 

Moore, John, 68, 77 

Moore, Louis T., 171 

Moore, M., 77 

Moore, Madame Mary, 114 

Moore, Richard C, 119, 122, 125, 

126, 137 

Moore, William P., 158 
Moore's Creek Bridge Battle, 100 
Morgan, S. A., 215 
Morganton, 161, 166 
Morris, Mrs. B. R., 156 
Morris, Parker W., 221 
Morse, Jedidiah, 106, 108 
Morton, Andrew, 72, 73 
Moseley, Edward, 26 
Mountain Lakes, N. J., 204 
Mumford, D., 139 
Music, 115 

Nash, Abner, 77, 99, 117 

Nash, Francis, 81 

Nash, Mary McKinlay, 189 

Nashville, Tenn., 135 

National Cemetery, 156 

National Commission on Evange- 
lism, 217 

National Guard, 209 

Naval Reserves, 198-99 

Navy, 198-99 

Neal, G. W., 183 

Neale, Abner, 99 

Neale, Christopher, 68 

Negroes, 54, 76, 120, 124, 125, 130, 
141, 151, 166, 173-74, 181, 201, 
214-15; Negro Congregations, 

127, 142, 151, 173-74, 181, 214- 
15; Negro Hospital, 201, 214 

Nelson, John, 25, 27 

Nelson, Margaret D., 189, 190, 214 

Ngusg 16 

Neuse'River, 20, 21, 25, 40, 71, 156 

Newark College, 127 

New Bern, captured, 167-69; in- 
corporated, 27; laid out, 136 

New Bern Academy, 99, 105, 110, 
112, 115, 142, 149, 188 

New Bern Benevolent Society, 144- 
46, 147 

New Bern Historical Society, 211 

New Bern Library, 81, 140 

New Bern Sun-Journal, 128, 134, 
199, 206, 209 

New Bern Times, 135 

New Brunswick, 65 

New England, 19, 31, 54, 90, 130, 
149, 169, 183 

New Hampshire, 184 

New Hanover County, 49, 73 

New Haven, 153 



240 



INDEX 



New Jersey, 19, 156, 179, 202, 204 

New Orleans, 153 

Newport, 63, 169 

Newport News, Va., 216 

Newspaper, first in province, 33 

New York, 65, 70, 80, 82, 104, 145, 
153, 154, 164, 169, 204, 206, 215 

New York Historical Society, 66, 
75, 78, 117, 157 

New York Review, 153 

New York University, 169-70 

Nixon, Richard, 101 

Noe, Walter R., 210, 214 

Norfolk, 110, 163 

Northampton County, 73 

North Carolina Baptist State Con- 
vention, 135 

North Carolina Christian, 135 

North Carolina Christian Advo- 
cate, 134 

North Carolina Christian Mis- 
sionary Convention, 135 

North Carolina Gazette, 117, 118 

North Carolina Historical Com- 
mission, 67 

North Carolina Magazine, 64 

North Carolina State Firemen's 
Association, 195 

Northern Episcopal Church, 164 

Northrop, Harry, 132 

Nunn, Etta, 133 

Nunn, R. A., 221 

Nursery School, 189, 207 

Oaths, 23-24, 26, 34 

Ohio River, 99 

O'Kellyan Christian Church, 132 

Old Dominion Steam Ship Com- 
pany, 180 

Old Mullet Road, 163 

Old South Church, Boston, 44 

Oliver, Mary, 190 

Oliver, Samuel, 159, 219 

Oliver, William H., 166, 173, 179, 
219 

Onslow, 30 

Orange County, 73, 124 

Orangeburg, S. C, 209 

Oregon, 184 

Organ, 136, 138, 178, 180-81, 190 

Oriental, 202 

Orphans, 32, 58 

Our Living and Our Dead, 120, 128, 
134, 138, 140 

Outten, Matthew A., 159, 219 

Oxford, 120 

Oxford Orphanage, 132 

Oxford Seminary, 132 

Palatines, 19, 20, 26, 33 



Palm Sunday, 183 

Pamlico River, 16, 25 

Pampti cough, 16; see Bath 

Papists, see Catholic 

Parish Bulletin, 210-11 

Parish House, 180, 189-90, 192, 

200, 201, 207, 210 
Parish Meetings, 192, 195, 197, 

200, 210 
Parish Registers, 124-25, 142, 149, 

151, 166, 168 
Parkinson, Bernard, 68 
Parliament, 10, 15, 16 
Parrot, Professor, 63, 85 
Paschal, G. W., 97 
Pasquotank, 12, 16, 17, 25, 61, 73 
Pasteur, Edward G., 219 
Patriotism, 201-2 
Patronage, 59, 111 
Patterson, George, 170-71 
Peace College, 131 
Peace Prayers, 211 
Pembroke, 99, 117 
Penick, E. A., 186 
Pennsylvania, 102, 105, 141, 145, 

187, 214 
Pennsylvania Diocese, 127 
Pensacola, 195 

Permanent Endowment Fund, 213 
Perquimans, 12, 16, 24, 25, 40 
Peterkin, Bishop, 216 
Petersburg, Va., 217 
Peterson, Elizabeth, 180 
Pettigrew Cemetery, 111 
Pettigrew, Charles, 97, 102, 103, 

104, 106, 107, 109-11, 120 
Pettigrew, James Johnston, 110 
Pettigrew Memorial State Park 

110-11 
Pettigrew, William S., 104, 108, 111 
Pettigrew's Chapel, 110 
Pews, 162; free, 185, 195; sale, 

138-39, 140; trimmed, 142 
Philadelphia, 93, 102, 103, 105, 109, 

110, 125, 153, 169, 186, 200, 204, 

208 
Philadelphia Divinity School, 204 
Philippine Islands, 205 
Phillips, Henry, 12 
Phillips, John, 119-20, 124 
Pilgrimage, Garden Club, 212 
Pilmoor, Joseph, 83-84 
Pindar, John, 68 
Pitt County, 120 
Pitt, William, 51 
Pleasantville, N. J., 202 
Plyler, M. T., 134 
Plymouth, N. C, 158, 170 
Poll Tax, 27, 38 
Pollock, Cullen, 68 



INDEX 



241 



Pollock, Thomas, 36, 37, 38, 39, 68 

Pollocksville, 202 

Pool, Henry C, 183 

Poorhouses, 87-88, 99 

Population, 120 

Porch, 180, 211 

Postoffice, 188, 204-5 

Prayer Book, 29, 50, 97, 102, 141, 

170 
Prayer Book, gift of King George 

II, 45-46, 127 
Prayers for King, 91 
Presbyterian, 12, 13, 14, 15, 19, 22, 

24, 30, 31, 34-35, 54, 72, 74, 82, 
110, 120, 129-31, 134, 137, 145, 
147, 148, 159, 169, 170, 177, 197, 
204, 216 

Presentation, 66, 73 

Price, N. E., 179 

Price, Thomas F., 132 

Princeton College, 112, 130 

Printing Press, 33 

Protestant Episcopal Church, 97, 

III, 121, 168 

Protestants, 19, 20, 33, 92, 93, 169 
Providence, R. I., 118 
Provincial Conventions, 90-91, 99 
Pulaski, Va., 216 
Pumphrey, Charles Tilden, 213 
Purefoy, Nicholas, 33 
Puritans, 19 

Quakers, 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 21, 22, 

23-24, 30, 31, 36, 54 
Queen Anne, 15, 16 

Rainsford, Giles, 17, 21 

Raleigh, 46, 114, 118, 120, 124, 127, 

131, 132, 138, 145, 158, 161, 175, 

181, 193, 198, 217 
Raleigh Register, 113, 118 
Randolph, Bishop, 193 
Ransom, Robert, 220 
Ravenscroft, John Stark, 137-38, 

140, 145, 216 
Reconstruction, 164 
Records, burned, 124, 142 
Rectories, 29, 158-59, 166, 188, 

204-5 
Red Springs, 131 
Reed, Hannah (Mrs. James), 96 
Reed, James, 6, 47-49, 52, 54, 55- 

56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66-67, 

68-71, 73, 76, 80, 82, 83, 85-88, 

90, 91, 95-97, 98, 112, 155, 211 
Reformed Church, 19, 20, 22 
Regulators, 78, 80, 82, 89 
Relief Society, 175, 178, 179, 181, 

189 



Renovations, 190, 197, 200, 201, 

205, 207 
Repainted, 211 
Repairs, on church, 139, 197 
Restoration, 23 
Revolutionary War, 35, 74, 87, 

89-91, 95, 97, 99, 100, 105, 111, 

119, 136, 174 
Rew, Solomon, 47-48 
Rhode Island, 80, 86, 154, 156 
Rice, John, 67 

Rice, theological student, 175 
Rice, W. J., 220 
Richmond, plantation, 80 
Richmond, Va., 137, 193, 216 
Ring, John, 169 
Riverside Methodist Church, 133, 

197 
Roanoke College, 216 
Roanoke Island, 9 
Roberts, Dita, 128, 149, 150, 161, 

171, 176, 177, 182, 191, 196, 199 
Roberts, Edward B., 220 
Roberts, Frederick C, 128, 166, 

173, 183, 220 
Roberts, George, 38 
Roberts, George H., 179, 183, 188, 

190, 192, 197, 200, 212, 213, 214, 

220 
Roberts, George H., Jr., 201, 220, 

221 
Roberts, John M., 139, 219 
Roberts, Mrs. F. C, 156 
Roberts, Mrs. G. H., 190 
Rochester, N. Y., 206 
Rokeby Plantation, 186 
Romanism, 145; see also Catholic 
Rome, 145 

Rotary Club, 200, 205 
Rotation System, vestry elections, 

205 
Rouse, J. Hill, 168-69 
Rowan County, 175 
Royal Governors, 29, 31, 36, 44, 49, 

50-52, 56, 62, 65-67, 70, 73, 86, 

90 95 
Rural Work, 210 
Rustell, Richard, 27 
Rutherford, John, 77 

Sabbath (Sunday), 23, 29, 50, 83, 
110, 168, 177, 179, 185, 188, 190, 
193, 200, 210, 214 

Sacristy, 180, 211 

St. Agnes Chapter, 211 

St. Andrew's Church, Greensboro, 
204 

St. Ann's Chapter, 96, 211 

St. Augustine School, 181, 217 



242 



INDEX 



St. Bartholomew Church, Phila- 
delphia, 200 
St. Cecilia Society, 212 
St. Cyprian's Church, 131, 173-74, 

181, 201, 214-15 
St. David's Parish, Creswell, 110 
St. Elizabeth Hospital, Shanghai, 

China, 217 
St. George Parish, Hyde County, 42 
St. George, Northampton County, 

73 
St. James Church, Marietta, Ga., 

190 
St. James, Philadelphia, 153 
St. James, Richmond, 216 
St. James, Wilmington, 42, 49, 73, 

107, 121, 123, 164, 168, 171, 186, 

193, 207, 216, 217 
St. John's Chapel, New York, 164 
St. John's Church, Fayetteville, 

121, 170 
St. John's Church, Jacksonville, 

Fla., 186 
St. John's Day, 116 
St. John's Lodge, A. F. & A. M., 

80, 81, 100, 101, 105, 108, 115-18, 

125-26, 128, 153: see also Masons 
St. John's Parish, Bute, 73 
St. John's Parish, Carteret, 27, 42, 

48, 63, 83 
St. John's Parish, Onslow, 42 
St. John's Parish, Pasquotank, 73 
St. Jude's Church, 124 
St. Luke's Church, New York, 145 
St. Luke's Hospital, 209 
St. Luke's Parish, Salisbury, 162 
St. Mark's, Pleasantville, N. J., 202 
St. Mark's, Richmond, 216 
St. Mary's, Kinston, 199 
St. Mary's School, Raleigh, 145, 

217 
St. Matthew's Church, Geneva, N. 

Y., 127 
St. Matthew's Parish, Orange 

County, 42, 73 
St. Patrick's, Dobbs County, 73 
St. Patrick's, Johnston County, 42 
St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 131 
St. Paul's Catholic Church, 132 
St. Paul's Parish, Beaufort, 181 
St. Paul's, Edenton, 14, 36-37, 41, 

42, 102, 110, 121, 125, 141, 208 
St. Paul's, Greenville, 197 
St. Paul's, Newport News, 216 
St. Paul's, Norfolk, 163 
St. Paul's, Richmond, 193 
St. Peter's, Baltimore, 163 
St. Peter's, Philadelphia, 125 
St. Peter's, Washington, N. C, 

151,216 



St. Philip's, Brunswick, 42, 73 
St. Stephen's, New York, 153 
St. Thomas Church, New York, 

153 
St. Thomas Mission, 151, 167, 179 
St. Thomas Parish, Bath, 25, 36, 

42, 73, 217-18 
Salem, Va., 216 
Salem College, 131 
Salisbury, 162, 179 
Sampson, John, 77 
Santee River, 19 
Satterthwaite, L. M., 221 
School Acts, 42, 61; recommended, 

51, 52, 61 
Schoolmasters, 29, 50, 54-55, 61, 

62, 70, 85, 112, 121; see also re- 
ferences under names of school- 
masters 

Schools, classical school, 160; cook- 
ing and sewing school, 198; other 
local schools, 120; parish school 
for poor, 160, 162, 166, 174, 175, 
183, 189; parochial school, 175, 
179, 181, 189; public school, 61- 

63, 64, 68-71, 76, 82, 85-86, 99, 
112, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 212; 
public schoolhouse used by 
General Assembly, 74 

Scotch, 137 

Scotch-Irish, 22 

Scotland, 41, 137 

Scotland Neck, 120 

Scott, Andrew, 68 

Scrapbook, 212 

Secession, 164, 175 

Secretary of State, 29 

Sedgewick Seminary, 132 

Seifert, Charles A., 220 

Sewanee, 195, 217 

Sewing Society, 212 

Shackleford, John, 27 

Shanghai, China, 217 

Shaw, John, 27 

Sheets, Jacob, 25 

Shelby, 168 

Shepard, Charles, 144, 219 

Shepard, Miss, 111 

Sheppard, Jacob, 68, 77 

Shields, Van Winder, 6, 183, 185- 

86, 188 
Shine, James, 55 
Silkworms, 19 

Simmons, Wentworth S.. 198, 220 
Simpson, Herbert, 188, 190 
Simpson, John, 77 
Simpson, Samuel, 159 
Singleton, Spyers, 99, 100 
Singleton, Thomas S., 219 
Sitgreaves, John, 99 



INDEX 



243 



Sitgreaves, Thomas, 68 

Skinner, H. A., 173, 214 

Slocumb, John, 25 

Slavery, 124, 163; see also Negroes 

Smallpox, 98 

Smith, H. B., 220 

Smith, John, 25 

Smith, John, 68 

Smith, Michael, 49 

Smith, Thomas, 25 

Smithfield, Va., 209 

Society for Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, 12, 15, 
16, 17, 21, 23, 30, 40, 41, 42, 48, 
54, 55, 56, 62, 64, 68, 69, 72, 73, 
76, 77, 79, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91 

Society of Cincinnati, 175 

South Carolina, 19, 57, 58, 65, 73, 
107, 132, 163, 186, 209 

South Carolina College, 138 

Southern Episcopal Church, 164 

Southern Historical Society, 120 

Southern Virginia, 193 

Spaight, Charles, 138, 140, 141 

Spaight, Elizabeth Wilson (Mrs. 
Richard), 114 

Spaight, Mrs. Richard Dobbs, Sr. 
(Mary Leech), 114 

Spaight, Richard, 114 

Spaight, Richard Dobbs, 98, 99, 
101, 113, 114, 117 

Spaight, Richard Dobbs, Jr., 117, 
138, 140 

Spaniards, 52 

Sparrow, F., 139 

Spring, Robert, 33 

Sprunt, James, Historical Publica- 
tions, 101 

Stanly, Harvey, 147, 172 

Stanly, J. G., 139, 159 

Stanly, John, 113, 117, 121, 138, 
139, 142-43, 153, 154, 156, 198-99 

Stanly, John Wright, 98, 99, 101, 
113, 136, 142, 155, 211 

Stanly, Mrs. John Wright, 98, 142 

Stanly Hospital, 169 

Starkey, John, 48, 61 

State Supreme Court, 153 

Stephens, M. C, 136, 138, 139 

Stevens, Charles L., 192, 220 

Stevenson, George S., 159 

Stevenson, M. D. W., 190, 220 

Stewart, Alexander, 47, 58, 69, 73, 
79, 83, 96 

Stewart. Andrew, 68 

Stith, Charles H., 141, 200, 220, 
221 

Stith, Laurence A., 201, 221 

Stone, Andrew L., 169 

Stony Point, 174 



Storms, 79 

Strange, Bishop Robert, 192, 193, 

198 
Strange, Col. Robert, 193 
Strebeck, George, 6, 119-20, 121 
Stryker, J. V., 160-61 
Sturgis, Russell, Jr., 168 
Sugg, Aquila, 77 
Sunday, see Sabbath 
Sunday School, 141, 168, 178, 179, 

180, 181, 183, 189, 192, 197, 200, 

201, 202, 207, 211, 212 
Suppers, 200 
Swann, Samuel, 48 
Swiss, 19, 20, 22 
Switzerland, 20 
Synod, 217 

Tabernacle Baptist Church, 133 
Tarboro, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 

109, 119, 120, 124, 174, 186, 187 
Taylor, J. L., 215 
Taylor, J. Mitchell, 202 
Taylor, Janet, 145 
Taylor, John R., 135 
Taylor, Mrs., 125 
Taylor, N. W., 208 
Taylor, the Rev. Mr., 97 
Taylor-Nixon- Ward House, 155 
Taxes, 27, 37, 38, 39, 51, 71, 87 
Temple University, 169 
Tennessee, 99, 195 
Thames River, 19 
Thanksgiving, 51, 168, 201 
Thanksgiving Dinner, bequest of 

the Rev. E. M. Forbes, 181 
Thomas, C. R., 220 
Thomas, Henderson Lee, 156-57 
Thompson, Alice A., 159 
Thompson, John, 41 
Thomson, William, 77 
Tillotson's Sermons, 70 
Tinker, George E., 183 
Todd, Vincent H., 22 
Tomlinson, Thomas, 62, 63, 68-71, 

76, 85-86, 96, 101 
Trapnell, Philip, 32 
Treadway, Amos C, 129-30 
Trent River, 19, 20, 21, 33, 36, 99, 

114, 117 
Trenton, 202 
Trenton, N. J., 110 
Trinity College, Hartford, 164 
Trinity Church, Chocowinity, 119 
Trinity Church, Claremont, N. H., 

184 
Trinity Church, Lumberton, 199 
Trinity Church, New York, 44 
Tryon, William, 65-67, 68, 69, 72- 

75, 76-78, 79, 82 



244 



INDEX 



Tryon's Palace, 33, 74-75, 90, 112- 
13, 115, 116, 152, 174, 175, 177, 
189 

Tucker, B. D., 216 

Tuttle, Bishop, 216 

Typhoid Fever, 169 

Tyrrell County, 110 

Union Baptist, 132 
Union Seminary, 131 
Union Soldiers, 118, 167-69, 171 
United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, 156 
U. S. Military Academy, 122 
U. S. Naval Academy, 199 
University of Louisiana, 153 
University of North Carolina, 113, 
114, 138, 149, 153, 157, 164, 193, 
216 
University of Pennsylvania, 125 
University of the South, 195, 216, 

217 
Upperville, Va., 216 
Urmstone, John, 17, 23 

Vache, Jean A., 204 

Valle Cruris, 145 

Vanceboro, 202 

Vardell, Charles G., 131 

Vardell, Charles G., Jr., 131 

Vass, L. C, 13, 22, 31, 33, 52, 91, 
93, 97, 117, 118, 120, 131, 134, 
135, 140 

Vass, L. C, Jr., 131 

Vested Choir, 190 

Vestry, Christ Church, 1, 25-27, 
34, 37, 39, 44, 47, 51-52, 55, 64, 
66, 70, 101, 103, 113, 124, 127, 
128, 138, 144, 147, 148, 150, 152, 
158, 160, 166, 178, 180, 184, 185, 
188, 189, 190, 192, 195, 197, 198, 
200, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207, 
212 213 

Vestry Acts, 15, 25-26, 34, 42, 56, 
58-60, 62, 74, 87-88 

Vestry Minutes, see footnotes at 
end of chapters 

Vestry Room, 136 

Vestrymen, 14, 23, 26, 27, 42, 50, 
51, 52, 58-60, 74, 91-92, 197, 200, 
205, 212, 213; number changed, 
192, 197, 205 

Virginia, 9, 12, 17, 19, 30, 33, 73, 
106, 119, 120, 124, 126, 128, 137, 
163, 193, 209, 216, 217 

Virginia Theological Seminary, 216 

Waddell, Gabrielle (Mrs. A. M.), 

187 
Waddell, Hugh, 77 



Wadsworth, Edward, 130 
Wadsworth, Sarah E., 214 
Wait, Samuel, 132 
Wake Forest College, 132, 175 
Walker, Henderson, 12, 14, 37 
War Between the States, 118, 133, 

154, 156, 164, 172, 173, 174, 181, 

212 
War of 1812, 120, 122-23 
War, others, see Revolutionary 

War and World War 
Ward, Enoch, 27 
Ward, Mrs. C. T., 190 
Ward, Mrs. D. L., Sr., 206 
Ward, Richard, 77 
Ware, C. C, 135 
Warne, J. A., 132 
Warren, Thomas D., 197, 220 
Warrenton, 119, 124, 178 
Washington, 119, 124, 209, 216 
Washington, D. C, 209 
Washington, George, 98, 101, 105, 

114 
Washington, John N., 159, 219 
Washington County, 110 
Waters, Joseph, 32 
Watson, Alfred A., 6, 44, 140, 146, 

158, 162-63, 165, 166-71, 173, 

186, 188, 192, 193, 216 
Weeks, Stephen B., 33, 89, 97 
Weeping Arch, cemetery entrance, 

156 
Weldon, 163 
Welsh, 21, 22 
Wesley Brothers, 119 
West, John Spence, 121-22, 199 
West Indies, 125 
West Point, N. Y., 122 
West Virginia, 209, 216 
Weston, James A., 175 
Wetmore, William R., 167-68 
Wheeler, John H., 118 
White, John, 9, 11 
White, Robert, 109 
White, William, 102, 103, 109, 112, 

125, 153 
Whitecoat, Bishop, 129 
Whitefield, George, 31, 65 
Whitefield, Theodore, 132 
Whitehurst, Henry P., 221 
Whitehurst, Richard, 27 
Whitehurst, Sadie, 190 
Whiteville, 199 
Whitford, Col. John D., 39, 93, 

101, 117, 118, 134, 135, 140, 154- 

55, 157, 165, 171, 176, 182 
Wickham, 16 
William III, 12, 19 
William and Mary College, 123, 

137 



Nofth Caroline. Siste Library 
Raleigh 



INDEX 



245 



Williams, Charles E., 6, 210-14 
Williams, John, 62, 68 
Williams, L. G. H., 6, 192 
Williams, William Joseph, 105, 156 
Williamsboro, 120 
Williamsburg, Va., 123, 137 
Williamson, Hugh, 72, 75 
Williamson, Richard, 27 
Williamston, 106 
Wills, John, 73 
Wilmington, 44. 52, 69, 90, 105, 

107, 119, 121, 122, 123, 126, 164, 

168, 171, 186, 187, 190, 193, 198, 

207, 209, 216, 217 
Wilmington Convocation, 190 
Wilson, James L., 102, 103, 106, 

109, 119 
Wilson, William, 38 
Wilton, William, 68 
Windley, Mrs. M. O., 96, 190, 214 
Windley, the Rev. Mr., 179 
Windsor, 187, 208 
Winfield, Benjamin A., 174 
Winslow, John, 121-22, 199 
Winston, Francis D., 187, 208 
Winston-Salem Journal, 118 
Winthrop, John S., 219 
Witherspoon, David, 101 



Witherspoon, John, 130 

Woman Suffrage, 197 

Woman's Auxiliary, 96, 198, 205, 

211, 212, 214, 216 
Women Delegates, 208 
Women Vestrymen, 208, 210 
Women's Church Organizations, 

96, 141, 142, 160, 175, 177, 178, 

189, 190, 198, 201, 205, 211, 212, 

214, 216 
Works Progress Administration, 

171 
World War, 198, 201, 214 
Worthington, Mr., 125 
Wren, Christopher, 131 
Wright, Carolina, 193 
Wright, Thomas H., 193 

Yale, 163 

Yellow Fever, 69, 98, 110, 112, 113, 
155, 168 

Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, 168, 214 

Young People's Service League, 
211, 212 

Zollikofer, Jacob C, 20 



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